تأثیر محلول‌پاشی پوترسین و نیترات پتاسیم در بهبود رشد رویشی و زایشی درخت به رقم اصفهان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

امروزه از هورمون­ها و عناصر غذایی به‌منظور بهبود رشد رویشی و زایشی در بسیاری از محصولات کشاورزی در جهان استفاده می­شود. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، افزایش تشکیل میوه، وزن میوه و در نهایت افزایش عملکرد در راستای بهبود رشد رویشی با استفاده از تیمارهای پوترسین (0، 01/0، 001/0 مولار) و نیترات پتاسیم (0، 2 و 4 درصد) و همچنین اثرهای متقابل آن‌ها روی درخت میوه به رقم اصفهان بوده است. بدین منظور محلول‌پاشی روی درختان طی دو مرحلۀ نوک‌سبز و تمام گل به‌صورت یک آزمایش کرت‌های خردشده (اسپلیت) فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. مقایسۀ میانگین­ها نشان داد تیمارهای پوترسین 01/0 مولار به تنهایی و همراه با نیترات پتاسیم 4 درصد و 2 درصد تأثیر معنی­داری در افزایش درصد تشکیل میوه، میانگین وزن میوه و عملکرد داشتند. تیمارهای پوترسین و نیترات پتاسیم سبب افزایش سطح برگ، شاخص سبزینه (کلروفیل) و افزایش طول شاخۀ سال جاری در مقایسه با شاهد شدند. بنا بر نتایج، تیمارهای پوترسین و نیترات پتاسیم با غلظت بالاتر و ترکیب همراه آن‌ها در بیشتر صفات اندازه­گیری‌شده به عنوان بهترین تیمارها و محلول‌پاشی در مرحلۀ نوک‌سبز به عنوان بهترین زمان کاربرد در این پژوهش معرفی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of putrescine and potassium nitrate spray on improvement of vegetative and reproductive growth of quince (Cydonia oblonga cv. Esfahan) fruits

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Ahmadi Pour 1
  • Zahra Pakkish 2
  • Vahidreza Saffari 2
چکیده [English]

Today, hormones and nutrients are used in order to improve vegetative and reproductive growth of many agricultural products in the world. The purpose of this study, was to increase fruit set, fruit weight, and finally, increase of yield along with improvement of vegetative growth with putrescine treatments (0, 0.01, 0.001M) and potassium nitrate (0, 2 and 4%) of quince (Cydonia oblonga cv. Esfahan) fruits. Trees were sprayed at two stages of bud tip green and full bloom, as a split-factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Comparison of means showed 0.01 M putrescine treatment alone or in combintion with potassium nitrate (4 and 2%) showed a significant effect on increasing percent of fruit set, average fruit weight and yield. Putrescine and potassium nitrate treatments also could increase leaf area, leaf chlorophyll index and the length of current season shoots compared to the control. Results showed that, treatments with higher concentrations of putrescine and potassium nitrate as well as their combination had the best effect on measured parameters. In addition, spraying in green tip stage was the best timing to improve the measured characteristics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fruit weight
  • leaf area index
  • Leaf chlorophyll
  • shoot length
  • yield
Abd El-Rahman, G. F., Hoda, M. M. & Ensherah, A. H. A. (2012). Effect of GA3 and potassium nitrate in different dates on fruit set, yield and splitting of Washington navel. Nature Science, 10(1), 148.
Ahmed, F. F. & Morsy, M. H. (1999). A new method for measuring leaf area in different fruit species. Agricatural and Development, 19, 97-105.
Arias, M., Carbonell, J. & Agusti, M. (2005). Endogenous free polyamines and their role in fruit set of low and high parthenocarpic ability citrus cultivars. Journal of Plant Physiology, 162, 845-853.
Boman, B. J. (2001). Foliar nutrient sprays influence yield and size of 'Valencia' orange. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 114, 83-88.
Crisosto, C. H. (1988). Putrescine influences ovule senescence, fertilization time, and fruit set in ‘Comice’ pear. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 113(5), 708-712.
Diosa, P. D., Matillab, A. J. & Gallardoa, M. (2006). Flower fertilization and fruit development prompt changes in free polyamines and ethylene in damson plum (Prunus insititia L.). Journal of Plant Physiology, 163, 86-97.
Dkhil, B. B., Denden, M. & Aboud, S. (2011). Foliar potassium fertilization and its effect on growth, yield and quality of potato grown under loam-sandy soil and semi-arid conditions. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 593-600.
El-Bassiony, A.M., Fawzy, Z.F., Abd El-Samad, E.H. & Riad, G.S. (2012). Growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) as effected by potassium fertilization. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 6(12), 722-729.
Enas, A. M. A., Sarrwy, S. M. A. & Hassan, H. S. A. (2010). Improving Canino apricot trees productivity by foliar spraying with polyamines. Journal of Applied Science of Research, 6(9), 1359-1365.
Eshghi, S., Safizadeh, M. R., Jamali, B. & Sarseifi, M. (2012). Influence of foliar application of Volk Oil, Dormex, gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on vegetative growth and reproductive characteristics of strawberry cv. 'Merak'. Journal of Biological and Environmental Science, 6(16), 35-38.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2011). Biodiversity: Agricultural Biodiversity in FAO. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from http://www. Fao.org/biodiversity.
Fos, M., Proano, K., Alabadi, D., Nuez, F., Carbonell, J. & Garicia Martinez, J. L. (2003). Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries. Plant Physiology, 131, 359-366.
Franco-Mora, O., Tanabe, K., Tamura, F. & Itali, A. (2005). Effects of putrescine application on fruit set in 'Housui' Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Scientia Horticulturae, 104, 265-273.
Hassan, H. S. A., Sarrwt, S. M. A. & Mostafa, E. A. M. (2010). Effect of foliar spraying with liquid organic fertilizer, some micronutrients, and gibberellins on leaf mineral content, fruit set, yield and fruit quality of 'Hollywood' plum trees. Agricultural Biology Journal of North America, 1(4), 638-643.
Hegazi, E., Samira, S., Mohamed, M., El-Sonbaty, M. R., Abd El-Naby, S. K. M &. El-Sharony, T. F. (2011). Effect of potassium nitrate on vegetative growth, nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of olive cv. 'Picual'. Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plant, 3(3), 252-258.
Hussein, A. H. A. (2008). Response of 'Manzanillo' olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar to irrigation regime and potassium fertigation under Tabouk conditions, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Agronomy, 7(4), 285-296.
Kaur-Sawhney, R., Tiburcio, A. F., Altabella. T. & Galston, W. (2003). Polyamines in plants. Journal of Cell and Molecular Biology, 2, 1-12.
Lester, G. E., Jifon, J. L. & Rogers, G. (2005). Supplemental foliar potassium application during muskmelon fruit development can improve fruit quality, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 130(4), 649-653.
Lester, G. E., Jifon, J. L. & Makus, D. J. (2010). Impact of potassium nutrition on post harvest fruit quality: Melon (Cucumis melo L.) case study. Plant and Soil, 335, 117-131.
Liu, J. H., Nada, K., Pang, Z. M., Honda, C., Kitashiba, H. & Moriguchi, T. (2006). Role of polyamines in peach fruit development and storage. Tree Physiology, 26, 791-798.
Magalhaes, A. S., Silva, M.B., Pereira, J. A., Andraade, P.B., Valentao, P. & Carvalho, M. (2009). Protective effect of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 1372-1377.
Mengel, K. (2002). Alternative or complementary role of foliar supply in mineral nutrition. Acta Horticulturae, 594, 33-47.
Neilsen, G. H., Neilsen, D. & Herbert, I. (2009). Nitrogen fertigation concentration and timing of application affect nitrogen nutrition, yield, firmness, and color of apple grown at high density. HortScience, 44(5).
Obreza, T. A. (2003). Importance of potassium in a Florida citrus nutrition program. Better Crops, 87(1), 19-22.
Pettigrew, W. T. (2008). Potassium influence on yield and quality production for maize, wheat, soybean and cotton. Physiologia Plantarum, 133, 670-681.
Pritsa, T. S. & Demetios, G. V. (2005). Correlation of ovary and leaf spermidine and spermine content with the alternate bearing habit of olive. Journal of Plant Physiology, 162, 1284-1291.
Ramzy, G. S., Abd El-Wahob, S. M., Habashy, S. A. & Keleni, R. A. (2011). Productivity and fruit quality of three mango cultivars in relation to foliar sprays of calcium, zinc, boron or potassium. Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental. Plants, 3(2), 91-98.
Russos, P.A., Pontikis, C.A. & Zoti, M.A. (2004). The role of free polyamines in the alternate bearing of pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. Pontikis). Trees, 18, 61-69.
Silva, B. M., Andrade, P. B., Martins, R. C., Valentao, P., Ferreres, F., Seabra, R. M. & Ferreira, M. A. (2005). Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) fruit characterization using principal component analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 111-122.
Southwick, S. M. & Olson, W. (1996). Optimum timing of potassium nitrate spray applications to 'French' prune trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 121(2), 326-333.
Taber, H. G. (2006). Potassium application and leaf sufficiently level for fresh market tomatoes grown on a midwestem United States fine-textured soil. HortTechnology, 16(2), 247-252.
Wargo, M., James, A., Mervin, I. B. & Watkins, C. (2003). Fruit size, yield, and market value of 'Gold Rush' apple are affected by amount, timing and method of nitrogen fertilization. Hort Technology, 13(1), 153-161.
Westwood, M. N. (1993). Temperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press. Pp219.  
Xia, G. & Cheng, L. (2009). Effect of nitrogen supply on source- sink balance and fruit size of 'Gala' apple trees. Journal of the American of Society for Horticulture Science, 134(1), 126-133.
Zeng, D. Q., Brown, P. H. & Holtz, B. A. (2001). Potassium fertilization affects soil K, leaf K concentration, and nut yield and quality of mature pistachio trees. HortScience, 36, 85-89.
Zhi-Yong, Z., Qing-Lian, W., Zhao-Hu, L., Liu-Sheng, D. & Xiao-Li, T. (2009). Effect of potassium deficiency on root growth of cotton seedlings and its physiological mechanisms. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 35(4), 718-723.
Zhu, L. H., Tromp, J., Van de Peppel, A. C. & Borsboom, O. (1999). Polyamines in buds of apple as affected by temperature and their relationship to bud development. Scientia Horticulturae, 82, 203-216.
Ziosi, V., Scaramagli, S., Bregoli, A. M., Biondi, S. & Torrigiani, P. (2003). Peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit growth and ripening: Transcript levels and activity of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes in the mesocarp. Journal of Plant Physiology, 160, 1109-1115.