تأثیر زمان برداشت بر وزن میوه، تجمع روغن و باردهی چند رقم زیتون در شهرستان طارم (استان زنجان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشیار، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان

چکیده

به‌­ منظور بررسی تأثیر زمان برداشت بر وزن میوه، مقدار روغن و باردهی سال آیندة چند رقم زیتون (کنسروالیا، آمیگدالولیا، کاریدولیا، کرونائیکی، آربکین، زرد و روغنی) آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات در زمان در قالب طرح پایة کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال‌های 1392 و 1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون (طارم - زنجان) اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که از بین رقم‌های مورد آزمایش رقم آمیگدالولیا بیشترین (شمار گل‌آذین و گل در شاخه، وزن میوه و مقدار روغن در ماده خشک) را داشت. همچنین بیشترین درصد تشکیل (گل کامل، میوة اولیه و میوة نهایی) در رقم آربکین ارزیابی شد. بنا بر نتایج تأثیر زمان برداشت، بیشترین وزن میوه در برداشت سوم مشاهده شد. مقدار روغن در مادة خشک در برداشت پنجم به بیشترین مقدار خود رسید. همچنین تأثیر زمان برداشت بر صفات مربوط به گلدهی و میوه‌دهی سال آینده نشان داد که بیشترین شمار گل‌آذین در برداشت چهارم، بیشترین شمار گل در شاخه در برداشت دوم و بیشترین درصد تشکیل (گل کامل، میوة اولیه و میوة نهایی) در برداشت سوم به­دست آمد. اثر متقابل زمان برداشت و رقم بر وزن تر میوه، درصد روغن، شمار گل‌آذین و گل در شاخه و درصد تشکیل گل‌های کامل، میوة اولیه و میوة نهائی در سطح 1درصد معنی‌دار شد. با توجه به صفات ارزیابی‌شده، برداشت میوة زیتون برای تهیة کنسرو اوایل مهرماه و برای استخراج روغن اواخر مهرماه قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of harvesting time on fruit weight, oil accumulation and productivity of some olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) in Tarrom region (Zanjan province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Jami 1
  • Vali Rabiei 2
  • Mahdi Taheri 3
1 University of Zanjan
2 University of Zanjan
3 Zanjan Agriculture Reasearch Center
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of harvest time on fruit weight, oil content and fruit bearing in the next year in some cultivars of olive (Conservalea, Amygdalolia, Karidolia, Koroneiki, Arbequina, Zard and Rouwghani), an experiment was performed as a split plot in time based on CRD (Completely Randomized Design) with three replications at olive research station (Tarrom–Zanjan) during 2013 and 2014. Results showed that among the cultivars, Amygdalolia had the most (number of inflorescence and flower per branch, fruit weight and oil content). Also, highest percentage of complete flower formation, initial fruit set and final fruit set were obtained in cv. Arbequina. According to the effect of harvest time, the most fruit weight was observed at the third harvest. Fruit oil content reached its maximum level at fifth harvest time. Effect of harvest time on flowering and fruit set in the next year, indicated that the highest number of inflorescence and flower per branch as well as maximum percentage of complete flower formation, initial fruit set and final fruit set were obtained at the fourth , second  and the third harvest time, respectively. Interaction between harvest time and cultivar on fruit fresh weight, oil percentage, inflorescence number, flower number per branch , complete flower formation percentage , initial and final fruit set were significant (p≤%1). Due to evaluated traits, the best olive fruit harvesting time to prepare canned and oil extraction should be late September and late October respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Complete flower
  • final fruit
  • inflorescence
  • oil content
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