تأثیر کاربرد کود زیستی، نیتروژن و آزوکمپوست بر عملکرد اسانس و اجزای اسانس بادرشبی (Dracocephalum moldavica L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 استاد، بخش تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی و محصولات فرعی، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‏ها و مراتع کشور

4 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

به‏منظور ارزیابی تأثیر کود‏های بیولوژیک، آزوکمپوست و نیتروژن بر عملکرد اسانس و اجزای اسانس بادرشبی (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) آزمایشی به‏صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‏‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1388‌ـ 1389 در دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس (منطقۀ 1) و در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان آذربایجان غربی (منطقۀ 2) اجرا شد. تیمار‏های آزمایشی شامل دو ژنوتیپ ( :G1جمعیت بومی و :G2 رقم (SZK-1، دو سطح باکتری (:B1تلقیح بذر با باکتری‏های ازتوباکتر + آزوسپیریلوم + سودوموناس و :B2عدم تلقیح) و پنج رژیم کودی (F1: 152 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار، F2: 114 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار + 85/3 تن در هکتار آزوکمپوست، F3: 76 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار + 77/7 تن در هکتار آزوکمپوست،F4 : 38 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار + 55/11 تن در هکتار آزوکمپوست و F5: 55/15 تن در هکتار) بودند. تیمار F3 در هر دو منطقه و در هر دو ژنوتیپ بیشترین مقدار و درصد ژرانیول و ژرانیال را تولید کردند. کاربرد تیمار تلفیقی 50 درصد کود اوره + 50 درصد آزوکمپوست در حالت تلقیح و عدم تلقیح با باکتری با کاهش مصرف نیتروژن، افزایش عملکرد و اجزای اسانس در جمعیت بومی بادرشبی می‏تواند جایگزینی مناسب برای کودهای شیمیایی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of biofertilizer, azocompost and nitrogen on oil yield and essential oil content of Dracocephalum moldavica L.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Yousefzadeh 1
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • Fatemeh Sefidkon 3
  • Mehdi Ghiasy Oskuee 4
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

To determine the effects of biofertilizers, nitrogen and azocompost on oil yield and essential oil content of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.), a field experiment was conducted as factorial in a randomized complete blocks design with 20 treatments and 3 replications. This study was performed at two locations during 2009-2010 on field in Tarbiat Modares University, and at the Khoy Agricultural Research Center. Treatments were consisted of two genotypes (landrace and SZK-1 cultivars), two seed inoculation (either (B1) with or without (B2) bacterial inoculation with Azotobacter + Azosprillum + pseudomonas) and five fertilization regimes (152 kg urea per hectare, F2: 114 kg urea per hectare + 85/3 tones azocompost per hectare, F3: 76 kg urea per hectare + 77/7 tones azocompost per hectare, F4: 38 kg urea per hectare + 55/11 tons azocompost per hectare and F5: 55/15 tons azocompost per hectare). F3 treatment had the highest geraniol and zhenya when genotypes were inoculated with bacterial in both regions and genotypes. Integrated treatment with 50% urea + 50% azocompost with or without bacterial inoculation in land race population, improved performance of yield and essential oil components by reducing the amount of chemical nitrogen, which could be a substitute to chemical fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bacterial inoculation
  • Cultivar
  • geraniol and zhenya
  1. Argyropoulou, C., Daferera, D., Tarantilis, P., Fasseas, C. & Polyssiou, M. (2007). Chemical composition and variation during development of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia citriodora H.B.K. (Verbenaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 35, 831- 837.
  2. Ashraf, M., Qasim, A. & Zafar, I. (2006). Effect of nitrogen application rate on the content and composition of oil, essential oil and minerals in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds. Journal of the science of Food and Agriculture, 86, 871-876.
  3. Aziz, E. E. & El-Sherbeny S., E. (2003). Effect of some micro-nutrients on growth and chemical constituents of Sideritis montana as a new plant introduced into Egypt. Arab Universities Journal of Agriculture Science., Ain Shams University., Cairo, 12, 391- 403.
  4. Behera S. K. & Panda, R.K. (2009). Effect of fertilization and irrigation schedule on water and fertilizer solute transport for wheat crop in a sub-humid sub-tropical region. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 130, 141-155.
    1. Carruba, A., La Torre, R. & Matranga, A. (2002). Cultivation Trials of some Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in a Semi-arid Mediterranean Environment. Proceeding of 5th International Conference on edicinal and Aromatic Plants,10- 12Oct., Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 576, 207-213?
  5. Chen, W. & Viljoen, A.M. (2010). Geraniol – A review of a commercially important fragrance material. South African Journal of Botany, in press.
  6. D'Antuono, L. F., Moretti, A. & Lovato, A.F.S. (2002). Seed yield, yield components, oil content and essential oil content and composition of Nigella sativa L. and damascena. Industrial Crops and Products,15, 59-69.
  7. Das, K., Dang, R., Shivananda, T.N. & Sekeroglu, N. (2007). Influence of bio-fertilizers on the biomass yield and nutrient content in Stevia rebaudiana Bert. grown in Indian subtropics. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 1(1), 005-008.
  8. Domokos, J., Peredi, J. & Halasz-Zelnik, K. (1994). Characterization of seed oils of Dragon head (Dracocephalum moldavica)and catnip (Nepeta cataria var. citriodora Balb.). Industrial Crops and Products, 3, 91-94.
  9. Dordas, C. & Sioulas, C. ( 2008). Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rain-fed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 27, 75-85.
  10. Galambosi, B., Galambosi, Z. S., Perrala, R. & Reppcak, M. (2002). Yield and quality of selected herb cultivars in Finland. Acta Horticulturae, 576, 139-149.
  11. Gharib, F., A. Moussa, L., A. & Massoud, O. N. (2008). Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 381-387.
  12. Hamidi, A. (2006). Agroecological aspect of bioferyilizers on grain and silage fooder yield of late maturity maiz (Zea mays) hybrids. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran. (in Farsi)
  13. Harridy, I. M. A., Soliman, S. G. I. & Mervat, T.A. (2001). Physiological, chemical and biological studies on Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus (DC) stapf in response to diazotrophic bacteria, Mansoura University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26, 6131-6152.
  14. Hendawy, S. F. (2008). Comparative Study of Organic and Mineral Fertilization on Plantago arenaria. Plant Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(5), 500-506.
  15. Holm, Y. & Hiltunen, R. (1988). Capillary gas chromatographic_mass spectrometric determination of the flavor composition of Dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 3, 109-112.
  16. Hussein, M. S., El-Shrbeny, S. E., Khlil, M. Y., Naguib, N. Y. & Aly, S.M. (2006). Growth characters and chemical constituents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. plants in relation to compost fertilizer and planting distance. Scientica Horticulturae, 108, 322-331.
  17. Idris, M. (2003). Effect of integrated use of mineral, organic N and Azotobacter on yield, components and N-nutrition of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6, 539-543.
  18. Kakasy, A., Z. Lemberkovics, E., Simandi, B., Lelik, L., Hethelyi, E., Antal, I. & Szoke, E. (2006). Comparative study of traditional essential oil and supercritical fluid extracts of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21, 598-603.
  19. Kalra, A. (2003). Organic cultivation of Medicinal and aromatic plants. A hope for sustainability and qualility enhancement. Journal of Organic Production of Medicinal, Aromatic and Dye- Yielding Plants (MADPs). FAO, p. 198.
  20. Kandeel, A. M., Naglaa, S. A. T. & Sadek, A. (2002). Effect of biofertilizers on the growth, volatile oil yield and chemical composition of Ocimum basilicum L. plant. Annals of Agricultural Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 47, 351-371.
  21. Melero, M., Vanderlinden, K., Ruiz., J. C. & Madejon, E. (2008). Long-term effect on soil biochemical status of a Vertisol under conservation tillage system in semi-arid Mediterranean conditions. European journal of soil biology, 44, 437-442.
  22. Naguib, N.Y. (2003). Impact of mineral nitrogen fertilizer and organic compost on growth, herb and chemical composition of German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) Rausch. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences, 18, 301-323.
  23. Omidbaigi, R. Borna, F. & Inotai, K. (2009). Sowing Dates Affecting on the Essential Oil Content of Dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) and its Constituents. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12(5), 580-585.
  24. Ozguven, M., Ayanoglu, F. & Ozel, A. (2006). Effects of nitrogen rates and cutting times on the essential oil yield and components of Origanum syriacum L. var. bevanii. Journal of Agronomy, 5, 101-105.
  25. Ozguven, M., Kirpik, M. & Sekeroglu, N. (2002). Determination of the optimal sowing time and nitrogen fertilization for lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) in the C¸ukurova conditions. In: Proceedings of the workshop on agricultural and quality aspects of medicinal and aromatic plants, Adana, Turkey. 217-223.
  26. Ozguven, M.. Sener, B.. Orhan, I.. Sekeroglu, N.. Kirpik, M.. Kartal, M.. Pesin, I. & Kaya, Z. (2008). Effects of varying nitrogen doses on yield, yield components and artemisinin content of Artemisia annua L. industrial crops and products, 27, 60-64.
  27. Ram, M., Ram, D. & Roy, S. K. (2003). Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Bioresource Technology, 87, 273-278.
  28. Ram, M. & Kumar, S. (1997). Yield improvement in the regenerated and transplanted mint (Mentha arvensis) by recycling the organic wastes and manures. Bioresource Technology, 59, 141-149.
  29. Rao, BRR. (2001). Biomass and essential oil yields of rainfed palmaroza (Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb) wats var. motia Burk) supplied with different levels of organic manure and fertilizer nitrogen in semi-arid tropical climate. Industrial Crops and Products, 14, 171-178.
  30. Sangwan, N., S. Farooqi, A., H., A. Shabih, F. & Sangwan, R.S. (2001) . Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth regulation, 34, 3-21.
  31. Santos-Gomes, P. C., Fernandes-Ferreira, M. & Vicente, A. M. S. (2005). Composition of the essential oils from flowers and leaves of Vervain (Aloysia triphylla (L’Herit.) Britton) grown in Portugal. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17, 73-78.
  32. Sekeroglu, N. & Ozguven, M. (2006). Effects of different nitrogen doses and plant densities on yield and quality of Oenothera biennis L. grown in irrigated lowland and un-irrigated dryland conditions. Turkish Journal of Agriculture & Forestry, 30, 125-135.
  33. Sifola, M.I. & Barbieri, G. (2006). Growth, yield and essential oil content of three cultivars of basil grown under different levels of nitrogen in the field. Scientia Horticulturae, 108, 408-413.
  34. Sonboli, A., Mojarrad, M., Gholipour, A., Ebrahimi, S. N. & Arman, M. (2008). Biological activity and composition of the essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. grown in Iran. Natural Product Communications, 3(9), 1547-1550.
  35. Tanu, A. & Prakash, A. (2004). Effect of different organic manures/composts on the herbage and essential oil yield of Cymbopogon winterianus and their influence on the native AM population in a marginal alfisol Bioresource. Technology, 92, 311-319.
  36. Violent, H. G. M. & Portugal, V. O. (2007).Alternation of tomato fruit quality by root inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Bacillus subtilis BEB-13bs. Scientia Horticulturae, 13, 103-106.
  37. Zarfeshan, M. (2008). Preparing climate and soil requirement tables for land suitability evaluation of cumin seed cultivation in iran based on fao frame work method.M. Sc. Thesis. University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran. (in Farsi)