ارزیابی برخی پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژیکی و رشدی سه ژنوتیپ مختلف گردو نسبت به بیکربنات آب آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان

2 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی اثر بیکربنات سدیم آب آبیاری بر صفات رشدی و فیزیولوژیکی ژنوتیپ‏های گردو، آزمایشی به‏صورت فاکتوریل با دو فاکتور بیکربنات سدیم در 3 سطح (صفر، 20 و 40 میلی‏مولار) و ژنوتیپ‏های گردو در 3 سطح شامل: ژنوتیپ محلی A؛ ژنوتیپ‏های وحشی B و C در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام گرفت. در این پژوهش اثر غلظت‏های مختلف بیکربنات بر روی صفات مختلفی نظیر رشد رویشی، خصوصیات فتوسنتزی، تنظیم‏کننده‏های اسمزی و غلظت عناصر معدنی بافت گیاهی هر یک از ژنوتیپ‏ها بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که وجود بیکربنات کلیۀ صفات مطالعه‌شده را تحت‌تأثیر قرار داد و اختلاف این اثر در بین سه ژنوتیپ به‏وضوح قابل مشاهده بود. مقدار آهن در اندام هوایی صرف نظر از نوع ژنوتیپ کاهش یافت. کمترین میزان کاهش (17/15 درصد) آهن اندام هوایی در غلظت 40 میلی‏مولار بیکربنات مربوط به ژنوتیپ A بود. کمترین درصد کاهش در کلروفیل بر اثر بیکربنات در مقایسه با شاهد در گیاهان ژنوتیپ A مشاهده شد. نتایج نشان داد که گردو جزء آن دسته از محصولات باغی است که حساسیت زیادی به بیکربنات آب آبیاری دارد، به‏طوری‏که از تیمار 20 میلی‌مولار به بعد رشد گیاهان کاهش یافت. بر‌اساس نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، ژنوتیپ A بیشترین میزان تحمل به بیکربنات‌ و نیز رشد رویشی بهتری در چنین شرایطی داشت، هر‌چند‌ بین گیاهان ژنوتیپ B و C اختلاف معنا‏داری مشاهده نشد. بنابراین، می‏توان ژنوتیپ A را به‌منزلۀ ژنوتیپ متحمل به بیکربنات آب آبیاری در مقایسه با دو ژنوتیپ دیگر معرفی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of some the physiological and growth responses of three walnut genotypes to different bicarbonate concentrations in irrigation water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meysam Manzari Tavakkoli 1
  • Vahed Bagheri 2
  • Hamid Reza Karimi 3
  • Hamid Reza Roosta 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate of irrigation water on the physiology and growth characteristics ofwalnut genotypes, a factorial experiment was performed with two factors including bicarbonate at 3 levels (0, 20 and 40 mM) and walnut genotypes (including local genotype A and wild genotypes B and C), based on completely random design. In this study, the effect of bicarbonate on various traits such as growth, photosynthetic parameters, osmotic adjustment compounds and nutrient elements of each genotype were examined. Results showed that bicarbonate affected all traits, and the differences among the three genotypes were clearly obvious. Irrespective of genotype, iron concentration decreased in shoots of all plants. The lowest reduction (15.17%) of iron concentration of shoots at 40 mM bicarbonate was related to the genotype A. The lowest chlorophyll percentage was observed in genotype A when exposed to bicarbonate, as compared with control. Results showed that walnut belongs to the group of horticultural crops that are highly sensitive to bicarbonate existance in irrigation water. So that, the growth of plants began to reduce from 20 mM treatment. According to the results of this study, genotype A had the highest tolerance to bicarbonate and had better growth in these conditions. Although, there was no significant difference between genotype B and C. Therefore, genotype A can be introduced as a tolerant genotype to bicarbonate existence in irrigation water and can be used in walnut breeding programs.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • alkalinity
  • iron
  • pH
  • tolerant genotypes
  • Walnut
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