مطالعۀ مقاومت به دمای انجماد توت آمریکایی (Maclura pomifera) با هدف کاربری در فضای سبز شهری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استاد، دانشجوی سابق دکتری، استاد و استادیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

دما و به‌ویژه یخبندان‏های دیرهنگام از فاکتورهای مهم محیطی محدود‌کنندة پراکنش جغرافیای گیاهان چوبی است. مطالعه‏ای دربارة میزان مقاومت به تنش یخ‏زدگی گیاهان چهارساله و درختان بالغ توت آمریکایی با هدف کاربری در فضای سبز شهری در دانشگاه تهران به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام شد. نمونه‏برداری از شاخه‏های یک‌ساله با رشد یکسان از پانزدهم آذر تا پانزدهم اسفند با فاصلۀ زمانی سی روز یک‌بار انجام شد. نمونه‏‏ها برای اعمال دماهای انجماد (5-، 10-، 15-، 20-، 25- و 30- درجة سانتی‌گراد) به سرماساز ترموگرادیان منتقل شدند؛ سپس میزان مقاومت به دماهای انجماد با اندازه‏گیری نشت الکترولیت‏ها، رشد مجدد نمونه‏ها، رطوبت نسبی شاخه‏ها، میزان پرولین، پروتئین و کربوهیدرات‏های محلول ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد با کاهش دمای یخ‏زدگی، نشت الکترولیت‏ها در اسفند‏ماه در نمونه‏های درختان بالغ و چهار‌ساله به‌طور معنا‏داری افزایش می‏یابد، اما در سایر ماه‏ها مقاومت بالایی نشان دادند و بین درصد نشت الکترولیت‏ها و درصد بقای نمونه‏ها همبستگی معنا‏داری (**88/0- =r) مشاهده شد. بیشترین و کمترین کربوهیدرات‏های محلول در ماه‏های مختلف به‌ترتیب مربوط به ماه‌های آذر و اسفند بود و همبستگی منفی بالایی با درصد نشت الکترولیت‏ها (**98/0- =r) داشت. حداقل محتوای پرولین شاخه‏ها نیز مربوط به ماه اسفند بود که بیشترین نشت یونی و کمترین رشد مجدد در نمونه‏ها مشاهده شد. با توجه به اینکه خسارت عمدۀ یخ‏زدگی در این گونه مربوط به ماه اسفند و دماهای کمتر از 20- درجۀ سانتی‏گراد است، به‏نظر می‏رسد درخت توت آمریکایی نسبت به دماهای انجماد مقاوم و یا به‏نسبت مقاوم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of resistance to freezing temperatures in Maclura pomifera for us in urban landscaping

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rohangiz Naderi
  • Alireza Khaleghi
  • Mesbah Babalar
  • Alireza Salami
. Professor, Ph.D. Student, Professor and Assistant Professor, University College of Agricutlure & Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Low temperature is one of main factors limiting distribution of woody plants. In order to evaluate the resistance of 4-years old seedlings and adult trees of Maclura pomifera to freezing stress, a factorial experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design with three replications in the faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran. During 2012-2013 sampling were done from the annual branches and carried out from December to March with 30-days interval. Samples were transferred to the thermogradiant freezer with the six freezing temperature of -5, -10, -15, -20, -25 and -30oC. Then, the resistance to freezing temperatures was measured based on electrolyte leakage, start to growing, relative humidity of branches, contents of proline, protein and soluble carbohydrates. The results showed that with the decrease in freezing temperature, electrolytes leakage was significantly increased in March taken samples in both adult and 4-years old trees; However, they showed high resistance in other months, and there were a significant correlation between electrolyte leakage and viability of samples (r=-0.88**). Maximum and minimum soluble carbohydrates contents were related to December and March, respectively, which have high negative correlation (r=0.98**) with electrolyte leakage during this months. Minimum content of proline in shoots was observed in March, which was correlated to highest electrolyte leakage and minimal re-growth of shoot samples during this month. Since the major freezing damages in Maclura pommifera occur in March, and in temperatures below the -20°C, this species seems to be resistant or relatively resistant to freezing temperatures.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • electrolyte leakage
  • Freezing stress
  • proline
  • Relative humidity of branches
  • soluble carbohydrates
 
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