تغییر فاکتورهای فیزیکی و فیتوشیمیایی گل همیشه‌بهار (Calendula offıcinalis L.) تحت‌تأثیر روش‌های مختلف خشک‌کردن و منبع تغذیۀ گیاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد و استاد پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج‌

2 استادیار پژوهشکدۀ گیاهان و مواد اولیۀ دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر برخی عوامل پس از برداشت بر خصوصیات کیفی گیاه دارویی همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.)، اثر منبع تغذیۀ گیاه شامل کود گاوی کاملاً پوسیده (25 تن در هکتار)، کمپوست زبالۀ شهری (20 تن در هکتار)، کمپوست قارچ مصرف‏شده (15 تن در هکتار)، ورمی‌کمپوست (15 تن در هکتار) و شاهد‌ و روش‏های مختلف خشک‌کردن شامل آون (60، 70 و 80 درجۀ سانتی‌گراد)، مایکروویو (300، 600 و 900 وات) و روش طبیعی (خشک‌کردن در دمای اتاق) در یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار، در دانشگاه تهران و دانشگاه شهید بهشتی در سال‏های 1389و 1390 بررسی شد. عوامل فیزیکی و فیتوشیمیایی شامل سینتیک خشک‌شدن و میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، فلاونوئید کل، ترکیبات فنولی و کاروتنوئید کل ارزیابی شدند. نتایج حاصل بیانگر نبود تأثیر معنا‏دار نهاده‏های آلی به‌منزلۀ منبع تغذیه بر خصوصیات کیفی همیشه‌بهار جز فلاونوئید کل بود در‌حالی‌که این خصوصیات به‌طور معنادار تحت‌تأثیر روش‌های خشک‌کردن قرار گرفتند. کاربرد مایکروویو در توان‏های 300، 600 و 900 وات به‌ترتیب بیشترین میزان فلاونوئید، ترکیبات فنولی و کاروتنوئید کل را به دنبال داشت درحالی‌که دماهای مختلف آون از کمترین میزان این صفات برخوردار بود. همچنین اثر متقابل خشک‌کردن و منبع تغذیه بر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی همیشه‌بهار معنادار بود و بیشترین و کمترین میزان این صفت، به‌ترتیب، از اثر متقابل ورمی‌کمپوست و مایکروویو 900 وات و ورمی‌کمپوست و آون 60 درجۀ سانتی‌گراد به دست آمد. بررسی روند منحنی‏های خشک‌شدن نشان داد که با افزایش توان مایکروویو و دمای آون، شیب منحنی کاهش رطوبت افزایش و زمان خشک‌شدن گل‏ها کاهش می‏یابد. در‌مجموع گزینش صحیح روش خشک‌کردن به عوامل متعددی بستگی دارد و در این میان استفاده از روشی بر مبنای مصرف بهینۀ انرژی و صرفه‌جویی در هزینه نیز باید مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Variability of physical and phytochemical criteria of pot marigold (Calendula offıcinalis L.) flowers under different drying methods and plant nutrient source

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Tabrizi 1
  • Farnaz Dezhabon 1
  • Yunes Mostofi 1
  • Mehdi Moridi Farimani 2
1 . Assistant Professor, Former M.Sc. Student and Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Medicinal Plant and Drug Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

With considering importance of post harvest operation on quality criteria of pot marigold (Calendula offıcinalis L.), the effect of flower nutrient source (organic inputs such as cattle manure (25 t ha-1), municipal waste compost (20 t ha-1), spent mushroom compost (15 t ha-1), vermicompost (15 t ha-1) and control) as well as different drying methods including microwave (300, 600 and 900 W), oven (60, 70 and 80oC) and natural-shade drying in room temperature were investigated on physical and phytochemical characteristics of flowers in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in Research Laboratories ofUniversity College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran and Shahid Beheshti University during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Criteria such as drying kinetic, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and total carotenoid were evaluated. Results indicated that organic inputs had no significant effects on quality criteria of pot marigold except of total flavonoid content while drying methods significantly affected phytochemical criteria. Application of microwave 300, 600 and 900 W resulted in highest amount of total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, respectively. However, oven drying caused the lowest amount of phytochemical criteria. Interaction effect of nutrient source and drying method significantly affected antioxidant activity in which the highest amount of antioxidant activity was obtained in combination of vermicompost and microwave 900 W. In addition, application of vermicompost combined with oven drying at 60oC caused the lowest amount of antioxidant activity. Based on results of drying curves trend, drying of flowers by microwave showed a faster drying rate than oven and natural-shade drying in which by increasing microwave power and oven temperature, time of flower drying decreased whereas slope of moisture content reduction curve showed accelerated trend. In general, selection of optimum drying method depends on several factors and also it should be considered based on optimum use of energy and effective cost.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant activity
  • Drying kinetic
  • flavonoid
  • Medicinal plant
  • Organic inputs
 

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