بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت بر روند تجمع مادۀ خشک و خصوصیات زراعی ارقام سیب‏زمینی تحت‌تأثیر یخ‏بندان در شرایط مزرعه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 . استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

این پژوهش به‏صورت آزمایش کرت‏های‏یک‌بار خرد‌شده در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار به‌مدت یک ‏سال زراعی (1390‌ـ 1391) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سه تاریخ کاشت از یازدهم آذرماه تا اول دی‌ماه به فاصلۀ 10 روز و فاکتور فرعی چهار رقم سیب‌زمینی (سانته، ساوالان، سانتانا و المرا) بود. هنگام وقوع یخ‏بندان گیاهان در دو تاریخ کاشت 11 و 21 آذرماه به‌ترتیب در مرحلۀ غده‏زایی و رشد سبزینه‏ای بودند که در‌نتیجه کلیۀ اندام‏های هوایی بوته‏ها از بین رفتند ولی در تاریخ کاشت اول دی‌ماه گیاهان هنوز از خاک خارج نشده بودند. یک هفته قبل از برداشت، اندام‏های هوایی قطع و غده‏ها در اواخر اردیبهشت‌ماه برداشت شدند. در اولین نمونه‏برداری بعد از وقوع یخ‏بندان، مقدار مادۀ خشک اندام‏ هوایی و غده در کلیۀ ارقام کاهش یافت. رقم ساوالان سریع‏تر از سایر ارقام ترمیم یافت. همچنین سرعت ترمیم گیاهان در تاریخ کاشت 21 آذر سریع‏تر از تاریخ کاشت 11 آذرماه بود. بیشترین تجمع مادۀ خشک بوته در دو تاریخ کاشت 11 و 21 آذرماه به رقم ساوالان تعلق داشت. به‏دلیل بیشتر‌بودن مقدار مادۀ خشک بوته در تاریخ کاشت 11 آذرماه نسبت به 21 آذرماه، اختلاف عملکرد محصول در تاریخ کاشت 21 آذر (96/7 تن در هکتار) در مقایسه با تاریخ کاشت 11 آذر (39/7 تن در هکتار) در سطح معنا‏دار 5درصد برتر بود. نتایج نشان داد که بر اثر یخ‏بندان عملکرد کل و قابل فروش غده، درصد عملکرد قابل فروش و متوسط وزن غده در هر دو تاریخ کاشت 11 و 21 آذرماه در مقایسه با تاریخ کاشت اول دی‌ماه کاهش یافت ولی اثر یخ‏بندان بر متوسط تعداد غده و درصد مادۀ خشک غده معنا‏دار نبود. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش به‌منظور اجتناب از خسارت یخ‏بندان به کشت زمستانۀ سیب‏زمینی در خوزستان از کاشت این محصول قبل از اوایل دی‌ماه بایستی اجتناب کرد و رقم ساوالان به‌منزلۀ مناسب‏ترین رقم برای این کشت توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting date on dry matter content and agronomical characteristics of potato cultivars influenced by natural frost in field conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolsatar Darabi 1
  • Reza Salehi Mohammadi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Agriculture & Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzistan, Behbahan
2 . Assistant Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Frost occurrence during plant growth created special conditions to evaluate the effects of planting date on dry matter content and agronomical characteristics of potato cultivars influenced by natural frost in field conditions. A split-plot experiment with three replications was carried out to compare three planting dates, as main plot, from 1 to 21 November with 10 day intervals and four cultivars (Sante, Savalan, Santana and elmera) as sub plot for one year (2011-2011) at Behbahan Agriculture Research Station. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. All haulms of plants in planting dates of 1 and 11 Nov., in vegetative growth and tuber initiation stages all haulms were killed due to frost. However plants in planting date of 21 Nov didn’t emerge. One week before harvest, haulms were defoliated. Tubers were harvested at mid-May. The haulm and tuber dry matter content of all cultivars decreased in the first sampling date after frost. The recovery rate of Savalan cultivar was higher than other cultivars. Plants in planting date of 11 Nov. were recovered faster than the plants in planting date of 1 Nov. Savalan cultivar produced the maximum dry matter content in planting dates of 1 and 11 Nov. Due to higher dry matter content of plants in planting date of 11 Nov., the yield of mentioned planting date was higher than planting date of 1 Nov. Comparison of characteristics showed that frost influenced the total and marketable yield, marketable yield percentage and mean tuber weight of 1 and 11 Nov planting dates, which were higher than 21 Nov planting date. However, the effect of frost on mean tuber number and tuber dry matter content did not differe significantly. Regarding to results, planting of winter potato should be avoided before late January in Khuzestan province to minimize the risk of yield damage by frost and Savalan cultivar is recommended for winter potato planting in this province.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • phonology
  • vegetative growth
  • tuber initiation
  • haulm
  • tuber
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