مطالعه تاثیرات پوشش گیاهی و سطوح سخت شهری بر ریز اقلیم و آسایش دمایی مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استاد یاردانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

ایجاد آسایش دمایی مطلوب در دوره‏های گرم سال با توجه به جمعیت بالا و اقلیم گرم و خشک بیشتر شهرهای ایران ضروری است. آزمایشی به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر درصد پوشش گیاهی و سطوح سخت بر تغییرات دما، رطوبت نسبی و آسایش دمایی شهروندان در سه سایت شهری و ایستگاه هواشناسی مشهد انجام گرفت. داده‏های اقلیمی دریافتی و ثبت‌شده از ایستگاه هواشناسی و سایت‏های چهارراه دانش، تقاطع مقدم طبرسی و پارک ملت که از نظر درصد پوشش گیاهی و سطوح سخت متفاوت بودند، با یکدیگر مقایسه شدند. شاخص‏های آسایش دمایی شهروندان و محدودۀ آن‏ها نیز در این سایت‏ها در گرم‏ترین دورۀ سال 1390 به تفکیک رده‏های سنی و جنسیتی مشخص شد. نتایج آنالیزهای آماری و خروجی مدل ریمن نشان دادند دما و رطوبت نسبی چهارراه دانش و تقاطع مقدم طبرسی نسبت به ایستگاه هواشناسی و به‌ویژه پارک ملت به‌ترتیب به‌طور معنا‏داری بالاتر و پایین‏تر بودند. شاخص‏های آسایش دمایی گرم‏ترین دورۀ سال نشان دادند که روزهای این دوره برای شهروندان به‌ترتیب در محدودۀ تنش گرمایی اندک، شدید و بسیار شدید قرار داشتند و به‌ترتیب پارک ملت و ایستگاه هواشناسی نسبت به چهارراه دانش و تقاطع مقدم طبرسی از نظر ایجاد آسایش دمایی برای مردم مناسب‏تر بودند.‌
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of the effects of vegetation and urban hard surfaces on microclimate and thermal comfort in Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Karimian 1
  • Ali Tehranifar 2
  • Mohammad Banayan 3
  • Majid Azizi 2
  • Fateme Kazemi 4
چکیده [English]

Considering high population and hot and arid climate in most cities in Iran, creating optimum thermal comfort during the hot periods is necessary. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of percentage vegetation and hard surfaces on changes of temperature, humidity and thermal comfort of in three urban sites and Mashhad weather station was investigated. Climate and recorded data from weather station and Danesh crossroad, Moghadam-Tabarsi intersection and Mellat Park that were different in terms of percentage vegetation and hard surfaces were compared with each other. Thermal comfort indices and the ranges of them in hottest period of 2011 were calculated by categorizing age and gender differences. The results of statistical analysis and RayMan model outputs showed that temperature and humidity of Danesh crossroad and Moghadam-Tabarsi intersection in comparison with those of weather station in particular Mellat Park were significantly higher and lower, respectively. Thermal comfort indices showed that as time passes in this period, the potential of the days create little heat stress, strong and very strong heat stresses in urban dwellers respectively and Mellat Park and weather station site were more appropriate than Danesh crossroad and Moghadam-Tabarsi intersection in terms of thermal comfort for people.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Green space
  • Heat Islands
  • Humidity
  • temperature
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