نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان ‏تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران‏

2 استادیار پژوهشی، گروه فیزیولوژی و فناوری پس از برداشت، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، مؤسسه ‏تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 مربی پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان ‏تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

10.22059/ijhs.2021.322561.1920

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر محلول­پاشی کائولین بر ویژگی‌های پومولوژیکی و عملکردی برخی رقم های زیتون در استان کرمانشاه، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. عامل اول رقم های زیتون  در شش سطح (آمفی­سیس، سویلانا، روغنی، مانزانیلا،کنسروالیا و زرد) و عامل دوم و کائولین در سه سطح (صفر به عنوان شاهد (محلول پاشی با آب) و 2 و 4 درصد) بود. دو مرحله محلول­پاشی کامل درختان زیتون با کائولین‎، در اواسط تیر و مرداد (با توجه به هوای گرم و خشک در این مدت و نیز تجمع روغن در زیتون همزمان با این دوره)، انجام گرفت. یاداشت­برداری­ صفات زایشی شامل عملکرد میوه و روغن، وزن میوه، ابعاد میوه، وزن تر و خشک گوشت، درصد ماده خشک و درصد رطوبت میوه، وزن تر و خشک هسته، ابعاد هسته، نسبت وزن تر و خشک گوشت به هسته و درصد روغن در ماده تر و خشک در تیمارهای مختلف ثبت گردید. نتایج نشان داد واکنش رقم های زیتون مورد مطالعه به محلول­پاشی سطوح مختلف کائولین، متفاوت بود. بیشترین عملکرد میوه در هکتار و وزن میوه در رقم کنسروالیا و محلول­پاشی4 درصد کائولین حاصل شد و کمترین عملکرد و وزن میوه در رقم روغنی مشاهده شد. در تمامی رقم های مورد مطالعه محلول­پاشی کائولین باعث افزایش وزن میوه و عملکرد در هکتار شد. بنابراین با استفاده از محلول­پاشی کائولین در دو مرحله رشدی میوه می­توان باعث بهبود خصوصیات پومولوژیکی و عملکردی در رقم های مختلف زیتون در مناطق گرم و نیمه گرم کشورگردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of fruit characteristics and yield of six commercial olive cultivars to ‎kaolin foliar application in warm conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmatollah Gholami 1
  • Abuzar Hashempour 2
  • Issa Arji 3
  • Aboalmahsan Hadjiamiri 4

1 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources ‎Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran‎

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Post-Harvest Physiology and Technology, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, ‎Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran

3 Associate Professor,‎‏ ‏Facultyof Science and Agricultural Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, , Razi ‎University, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Instructor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran

چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of kaolin foliar application on pomological and yield characteristics of some olive cultivars in Kermanshah province, a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was olive cultivars at six levels (Amphisis, Seville, Roughani, Manzanillo, Konservolia and Zard) and the second factor was kaolin at three levels (zero as control (foliar application with water) and 2 and 4%). Two stages of complete foliar application of olive trees with kaolin, in mid-July and August (due to warm and dry weather during this period and accumulation oil in olive at the same time) was carried out. Recording of reproductive traits including fruit and oil yield, fruit weight, fruit dimensions, fresh and dry weight of pulp, percentage of dry matter and moisture content of fruit, fresh and dry weight of pit, pit dimensions and percentage of oil in wet and dry matter was recorded in different treatments. The results showed that the response of the studied olive cultivars to foliar application of different levels of kaolin was different. The highest fruit yield per hectare and fruit weight were obtained in Konservolia cultivar and 4% kaolin foliar application and the lowest yield and fruit weight were observed in Roughani cultivar. In all studied cultivars, kaolin foliar application increased fruit weight and yield per hectare. Therefore, by using kaolin foliar application in two stages of fruit growth, it is possible to improve the pomological and yield characteristics of different olive cultivars in warm and semi-warm regions of the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fruit
  • kaolin
  • olive
  1. AbdelGhani, N.A., Ghalal, M.A., El-Sayed, M.E., Samia, M., El-Marsafawy & Omran, M.A. (2013). Effect of spraying kaoline and calcium carbonate on the productivity of ‘Aggizi and Pacual’ olive cvs.Journal of Plant Production, 4(7), 1035-1050.
  2. Ministry of Agricultural Jihad. (2020). Olive Office of the Deputy Minister of Horticulture, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture.
  3. Burme L., Moallemi N., & Mortazavi S.M.(2011). Anti-Transpiration Effect of Kaolin on Some Physiological Traits of Four Olive Cultivars. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 1 (1), 11-23. (in Farsi).
  4. Burme, L., Moallemi, N., & Mortazavi, S.M.H. (2013). Effects of foliar application of kaoline on some qualitative and quantitative fruit features of four varieties of olive. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 44(2), 161-168. (in Farsi).
  5. Brito, C., Dinis, L.T., Silva, E., Gonçalves, A., Matos, C., Rodrigues, M.A., & Correia, C. (2018). Kaolin and salicylic acid foliar application modulate yield, quality and phytochemical composition of olive pulp and oil from rainfed trees. Scientia Horticulturae, 237, 176-183.
  6. Denaxa, N.K., Roussos P.A., Damvakaris T., & Stournaras V. (2012). Comparative effects of exogenous glycine betaine, kaolin clay particles and Ambiol on photosynthesis, leaf sclerophylly indexes and heat load of olive cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis under drought. Scientia Horticulturae, 137, 87-94.
  7. Farazmand, H., Hassanzadeh, H., Sirjani, M., Mohammadpour, K., Moshiri, A., Valizadeh, S. H. &Jafari-Nodooshan, A. 2015. Effect of kaolin clay (WP 95%) on oviposition deterrency of pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckharat & Lauterer. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology Journal 82 (2): 137-146 (in Farsi)
  8. Faissal, F. A., Mokhtar, M. S. & Ahmed, M. K. (2011). Protecting crimson seedless grapevines growing in hot climates from sunburn. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 7 (1), 135-141.
  9. (2020). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Statistics Division. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E.
  10. Ghanbarpour, E., Rezaei, M. & Lawson, S. (2019). Reduction of cracking in pomegranate fruit after foliar application of humic acid, calcium-boron and kaolin during water stress. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 61, 29-39.
  11. Gholami R., & Zahedi S.M. (2019). Identifying superior drought-tolerant olive genotypes and their biochemical and some physiological responses to various irrigation levels. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 42, 2057-2069.
  12. Gholami R., Sarikhani H., & Arji, I. )2017). Effects of deficit irrigation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality in three olive oil cultivars. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 48: 191-201. (in Farsi).
  13. Gleen, D.M. (2012). The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and applications in horticultural and agricultural crops. HortScience, 47, 710-711.
  14. Glenn, D.M. & Puterka, G.J. (2005). Particle films: A newtechnology for agriculture. Horticultural Reviews, 31, 1-44.
  15. Glenn, D.M., Drake, S., Abbott, J.A., Puterka, G.J., & Gundrum, P. (2005). Season and cultivar influence the fruit quality response of apple cultivars to particle film treatments. HortTechnology, 15, 249-253.
  16. International Olive Oil Council. (2002). Methodology for the secondary characterization (agronomic, phonological, pomological and oil quality) of olive varieties held in collection. Project on conservation, characterization, collection of genetic resources in olive. 23p.
  17. Jifon, J.L. & Syvertsen, J.P. (2003). Kaoline particle film applications can increase photosynthesis and water use efficiency of ‘Ruby Red’ grapefruit leaves. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 128, 107-112.
  18. Karimi, S., Yadollahi A., Arzani K., Imani A., & Aghaalikhani M. (2015). Gas-exchange response of almond genotypes to water stress. Photosynthetica, 53, 29-34.
  19. Kavand, M., Arzani, K., Barzegar, M., & Mirlatifi, M. (2016). Effects of sunscreen, kaolin application, fruit thinning and supplementary irrigation on the aril browning disorder of pomegranate cv. “Malase Torshe Saveh”. Journal of Seed and Plant Improvement, 33(1), 85-112. (in Farsi).
  20. Khaleghi, E., Arzani, K., Moallemi, N., & Barzegar, M. (2015). The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea) cv ‘Zard’grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran. Food Chemistry, 166, 35-41.
  21. Ma, Y-H., Ma, F-W., Zhang, J-K., Li, M-J., Wang, Y-H., & Liang, D. (2008). Effects of high temperature on activities and gene expression of enzymes involved in ascorbate–glutathione cycle in apple leaves. Plant Science, 175(6), 761-6.
  22. Michael E., Salvucci & Steven J., Crafts-Brandner. (2004). Inhinition of photosynthesis by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in photosynthesis. Physiological Plantarum, 120, 1790186.
  23. Nakano A., & Uehara, Y. (1996). The effects of kaolin clay on cuticle transpiration in tomato.International Symposium on Plant Production in Closed Ecosystems, 440, 233-238.
  24. Nazar R., Umar S., Khan N.A., & Sareer, O. (2015). Salicylic acid supplementation improves photosynthesis and growth in mustard through changes in proline accumulation and ethylene formation under drought stress. South African Journal of Botany, 98, 84-94.
  25. Pennino, G., Pane, G., Raiti, G., Perri, E., Carovita, M. A., Macchione, B. & Di Martino, V. (2006). Three years field trials to assess the effect of kaolin made particles and copper on olive-fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin) infestations in Sicily. DCA-UNiversità di Palermo; Regione Siciliana-Assessorato Agricoltura e Foreste Proceedings, 2, 303-306.
  26. Rosati, A., Metcalf, S., Buchner, R., Fulton, A., & Lampinen, B. (2007). Effects of kaolin application on light adsorption and distribution, radiation use efficiency and photosynthesis of almond and walnut canopies. Annals of Botany, 99(2), 255-263.
  27. Saour, G. (2005). Morphological assessment of olive seedlings treated with kaoline-based particle film and biostimulant. Advances in Horticultural Science, 19(4), 193-197.
  28. Scopel, E., Da Silva, F.A.M., Corbeels, M., Affholder, F., & Maraux, F. (2004). Modelling crop residue mulching effects on water use and production of maize under semi-arid and humid tropical conditions. Agronomie 24: 383-395.
  29. Shahriari, S. (2011). The study on the effect of irrigation levels and mulch application on growth indices and essential oil content of peppermint (Mentha piperita ). Planta Medicine, 18, 77-88.
  30. Singer, C. K. & Martin, C. A. (2009). Effect of landscape mulches and drip irrigation on transplant establishment and growth of three North American desert native plants. Journal of Environmental and Horticulture, 27(3), 166-170.
  31. Sofo, A., Manfreda, S., Fiorentino, M., Dichio, B. & Xiloyannis, C. (2008). The olive tree: A paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12, 293-301.
  32. Srivatata B.K., Sharma A.K., Singh A.K. & Pandey V. (1984). Effects of organic mulches and irrigation levels on soil temperature water economy and yield of summe tomato. Vegetable Science, 11, 1-9.
  33. Steinmetz, Z., Wollmann, C., Schaefer, M., Buchmann, C., David, J., Troger, J., Munoz, K., Fror, O., & Schaumann, G.L. (2016). Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation? Science of the Total Environment, 550, 690-705.
  34. Saour, G., & Makee, H. (2003). Effects of kaolin particle film on olive fruit yield, oil content and quality. Advances in Horticultural Science, 17 (4), 204-206.
  35. Strain, H.H., & Svec, W.A. (1966). Extraction, separation, estimation, and isolation of the chlorophylls. Chlorophylls, 21-66.