ارزیابی خصوصیات رشدی و غلظت عناصر غذایی در چهار ژنوتیپ‏ بادام پیوند‌شده روی پایۀ GF677 تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری و دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

2 دانشیار، مؤسسۀ نهال و بذر کرج، کرج

3 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه گیلان

4 استادیار، مؤسسۀ آب و خاک کرج، کرج

چکیده

ترکیب پایه و پیوندک، خصوصیات رشدی و غلظت عناصر غذایی برگ و ریشۀ‏ بادام را در شرایط شوری، تحت‌تأثیر قرار می‏دهد. در این پژوهش، آثار شوری آب بر خصوصیات رشدی و غلظت عناصر غذایی برگ و ریشۀ‏ تعدادی از ژنوتیپ‏ها و ارقام بادام بررسی شد. ژنوتیپ‏های ‌مطالعه‌شده شامل مامایی، نان‏پاریل، A200 و 1-25 پیوند‌شده روی پایۀ GF677 و پایۀ GF677 (پیوند‌نشده) و شوری آب آبیاری شامل 0، 2/1، 4/2، 6/3 و 8/4 گرم در لیتر نمک بودند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش شدت شوری، قطر پیوندک، ارتفاع پیوندک، تعداد برگ تولیدی و درصد برگ‏های سبز کاهش یافت و در مقابل، درصد برگ‏های نکروزه و ریزش‌یافته افزایش یافت. همچنین‌ در تمامی ژنوتیپ‏های مطالعه‌شده، بیشترین مقدار کلر و سدیم، نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم، سدیم به کلسیم، سدیم به منیزیم، سدیم به فسفر و کمترین مقدار کلسیم، منیزیم، فسفر و مس در برگ‏ و ریشه و کمترین غلظت آهن در ریشه، در شوری 8/9 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، مشاهده شد. ژنوتیپ 1-25 در تمامی سطوح شوری، دارای کمترین مقدار کلر و سدیم، کمترین نسبت‏های سدیم به پتاسیم، سدیم به کلسیم، سدیم به منیزیم و سدیم به فسفر بود. این ژنوتیپ، توانست در شوری 3/7 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، از طریق افزایش پتاسیم (19/1 درصد)، مس (56/9 قسمت در میلیون)، آهن (48/27 قسمت در میلیون) و روی (80/66 قسمت در میلیون)، به مقدار بیشتری از سایر ژنوتیپ‏های مطالعه‌شده، با آثار مخرب سدیم مقابله کند. در‌مجموع‌ ژنوتیپ 1-25 و رقم مامایی به‌ترتیب، متحمل‏ترین ژنوتیپ و حساس‏ترین رقم به شوری تشخیص داده شدند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of growth characteristics and nutrient concentration in four almond (Prunus dulcis) genotypes budded on GF677 rootstock under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Momenpour 1
  • Ali Imani 2
  • Hamed Rezaie 4
1 Post Graduate Student and Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan
2 Associate Professor, Seeds and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj
4 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Institute, Karaj
چکیده [English]

Scion-rootstock combination and level of salinity affect growth characteristics and concentration of nutrition elements of almond leaves and roots. In this research, effects of salinity stress were investigated on growth characteristics and nutrient concentration of almond leaves and roots by completely Randomized Design (CRD), with two factors, genotype and water salinity with three replications. Studied Genotypes were ‘Non Pareil’, ‘A200’, ‘Mamayi’, ‘1-25’ which budded on GF677 and ‘GF677’ (non budded as control) and water salinity consisted of 0, 1.2, 2.4, 3.6 and 4.8 g/l of natural salt. Results showed that with increasing of salinity levels, scion height, scion diameter, number of produced leaves and percentage of green leaves had been reduced, but percentage of necrotic leaves and percentage of downfall leaves were increased. Also, in all studied genotypes, the highest percentage of Na+, Cl-, Na+to K+ ratio, Na+ to Ca++ ratio, Na+ to Mg++ ratio, Na+ to P ratio and the lowest percentage of Ca++, Mg++, P and concentration of Cu++ in leaves and roots and the lowest concentrations of Fe++ in roots were observed in treatment irrigated with 9.8 ds/m of NaCl. In all levels of salinity, genotype ‘1-25’ had the lowest percentage of Na+, Cl-, Na+ to K+ ratio, Na+ to Ca++ ratio, Na+ to Mg++ ratio and Na+ to P ratio. In comparison to other genotypes, this genotype could tolerate the harmful effects of Na+ in salinity of 7.3 ds/m by increasing the percentage of K+ (1.19%), concentration of Cu++ (9.56 ppm), Fe++ (27.48 ppm) and Zn++ (66.80 ppm). Overall, ‘1-25’ and ‘Mamayi’ were recognized as the most tolerant and sensitive cultivars to salinity stress, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • almond
  • GF677
  • Salinity stress
  • Macronutrients
  • micronutrients
  • ‘Mamayi’
  • ‘1-25’
 

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