تعیین نیازهای سرمایی و گرمایی قلمه‏‌های انگور و تغییر کربوهیدرات‏ و هورمون‏‌ها در دورۀ سرمادهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم باغبانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

این پژوهش به‏منظور تعیین نیاز سرمایی و گرمایی انگور رقم‏های رطبی، سیاه شیراز و یاقوتی انجام شد. همچنین تغییر کربوهیدرات‏ها و هورمون‏های درونی در رقم یاقوتی سیاه در دورۀ سرمادهی بررسی شد. بدین منظور، قلمه‏های یک‏اندازه (30 سانتی‌متر) بی‏درنگ پس از خزان‏برگ‏ها در پاییز جمع‏آوری شدند. سرمادهی شامل 0 (شاهد)، 100، 200، 300، 400 و 500 ساعت در دمای 2 درجۀ سلسیوس بودند. سپس، قلمه‏ها در آب‏مقطر و در شرایط دمای اتاق و نور ممتد قرار گرفتند. درصد شکوفایی جوانه، تعداد روز تا شکوفایی اولین جوانه و 50 درصد جوانه‏ها، میزان نشاسته، کربوهیدرات‏های محلول، جیبرلین، سایتوکینین، اکسین و اسید آبسیزیک در بافت‏های جوانه، گره و میان‏گره اندازه‏گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بالاترین درصد شکوفایی جوانه و کوتاه‏ترین زمان تا شکوفایی50 درصد جوانه‏ها در رقم‏های سیاه شیراز، رطبی و یاقوتی‏ به‏ترتیب در تیمارهای 500، 400 و400 ساعت سرمادهی بود. در هر 3 رقم، بالاترین میزان نشاسته در تیمار‏های بدون سرمادهی بود‌ و با سرمادهی میزان نشاسته کاهش و کربوهیدرات محلول افزایش یافت. میزان جیبرلین، سایتوکینین و اکسین با اعمال تیمار‏های سرمادهی، افزایش و آبسیزیک‏اسید کاهش یافت. در‌نتیجه نیاز سرمایی رقم‏های یاقوتی، رطبی و سیاه شیراز به‌ترتیب400، 400 و 500 ساعت و نیاز گرمایی4320،5472 و 8064 درجه‌ساعت (GDH) تعیین شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of chilling and heat requirements of grape cuttings and changes in carbohydrates and hormones during chilling period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saied Eshghi 1
  • Mehdi Garazhian 2
1 Associate Professor of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University
2 Student of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

 
This research was carried out to determine the chilling and heat requirements of grapevine cultivars(Rotabi, Siah Shiraz and Yaguti) and carbohydrate and hormones changes in chilled cuttings. Uniform cuttings of above mentioned cultivars were harvested when leaves were abscised in autumn, and then transferred to refrigerator (2˚C). Cuttingswere subjected to 0 (unchilled control), 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 chilling hours, then cuttings were put in distilled water at room temperature and continues light conditions. Results indicated that the highest bud break percent of ‘Siah Shiraz’, ‘Rotaby’ and ‘Yaguti’ were obtained from 500, 400 and 400 h respectively. The shortest time (29d) to 50% bud break of ‘Siah Shiraz’ was in 500 h(29 d), in ‘Rotabi’ and ‘Yaguti’ were in 400 h (20 and 16d) chilling. Rate of starch content in all cultivars were decreased when chilling exposed hours increased, while soluble carbohydrate content in cuttings increased with increasing chilling hours. Also, with increasing chilling exposed hours, GA, Cytokinin and Auxin contents increased whereas ABA decreased. In conclusion, chilling requirement of ‘Yaguti’, ‘Rotabi’ and‘Siah Shiraz’cultivars were 400, 400, 500 hours and heat requirements were 4320, 5472 and 8064 GDH, respectively.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chilling Requirement
  • Vitis vinifera
  • Soluble carbohydrate
  • starch
 
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