Morphological evaluation of genetic diversity of wild populations of some Rumex ‎species in Iran ‎

Document Type : Full Paper


1 M.Sc. Graduated, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Weed Researcher, Plant Protection Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education ‎Center, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 14 populations of five species of Rumex, including R. chalepensis, R. kandavanicus, R. pulcher, R. crispus and R. tuberosus from Ardabil and Khorasan Razavi provinces using morphological traits. The studied traits included leaf length, leaf width, number of leaves per plant, aerial fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, phenol and antioxidants. Studies of morphological and phytochemical traits on farm and greenhouses showed that the highest coefficient variation for morphological traits related to aerial fresh and dry weight and number of leaves per plant, while the lowest coefficient variation related to the leaf length. In addition, the highest coefficient variation related to chlorophyll b and phenol and the lowest related to chlorophyll a. Also, the results of mean comparison of morphological traits under farm and greenhouse conditions showed that there was a significant difference between different species of Rumex and different populations within each species in the farm, however, there was a significant difference between different species in the greenhouse only in leaf length, leaf width, number of leaves per plant, aerial fresh and dry weight, phenol and antioxidants. In general, phenol and antioxidants were higher in R. crispus than in other species, however, R. tuberosus showed lower values ​​in all morphological and phytochemical traits compared to other species.


  1. Alirezaie Noghgondar, M., Azizi, M., Neamati, S., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. & Rezazadeh, S. (2016). Variation of some phytochemical compound in shoot and root of Rumex turcomanicus at different phenological stages. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2 (58), 25-36. (In Farsi).
  2. Andini, R., Yoshida, S., Yoshida, Y., & Ohsawa, R. (2013). Amaranthus genetic resources in Indonesia: morphological and protein content assessment in comparison with worldwide amaranths. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60(7), 2115-2128.
  3. Bhandari, H. R., Nishant Bhanu, A., Srivastava, K., Singh, M. N., & Shreya, H. A. (2017). Assessment of genetic diversity in crop plants. An overview. Advanses in Plants and Agriculture Research, 7, 7(3), 279- 286.
  4. Brancourt-Hulmel, M., Heumez, E., Pluchard, P., Beghin, D., Depatureaux, C., Giraud, A., & Le Gouis, J. (2005). Indirect versus direct selection of winter wheat for low-input or high-input levels. Crop Science, 45(4), 1427-1431.
  5. Bruschi, P., Vendramin, G. G., Bussotti, F., & Grossoni, P. (2003). Morphological and molecular diversity among Italian populations of Quercus petraea (Fagaceae). Annals of Botany, 91(6), 707-716.
  6. Butcher, P. A., McDonald, M. W., & Bell, J. C. (2009). Congruence between environmental parameters, morphology and genetic structure in Australia’s most widely distributed eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). Tree Genetics & Genomes, 5 (10), 189-210.
  7. Dumolin-Lapegue, S., Demesure, B., Fineschi, S., Le Come, V., & Petit, R. J. (1997). Phylogeographic structure of white oaks throughout the European continent. Genetics, 146(4), 1475-1487.
  8. Farris, M. A., & Schaal, B. A. (1983). Morphological and genetic variation in ecologically central and marginal populations of Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae). American Journal of Botany, 70(2), 246-255.
  9. Firuzi, O., Lacanna, A., Petrucci, R., Marrosu, G., & Saso, L. (2005). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids by “ferric reducing antioxidant power” assay and cyclic voltammetry. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1721(1-3), 174-184.
  10. Hadian, J., Hossein Mirjalili, M., Reza Kanani, M., Salehnia, A., & Ganjipoor, P. (2011). Phytochemical and morphological characterization of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad populations from Iran. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 8(5), 902-915.
  11. Javanmardi, J., Stushnoff, C., Locke, E., & Vivanco, J. M. (2003). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Iranian Ocimum Food Chemistry, 83(4), 547-550.
  12. Jeelani, S. M., Farooq, U., Gupta, A. P., & Lattoo, S. K. (2017). Phytochemical evaluation of major bioactive compounds in different cytotypes of five species of Rumex Industrial Crops and Products, 109, 897-904.
  13. Kenny, D. A., Korchmaros, J. D., & Bolger, N. (2003). Lower level mediation in multilevel models. Psychological Methods, 8(2), 115.
  14. Khezri, S. Sh. (2003). Medicinal plants culture "properties of fruits, plants and vegetables". University of Tehran. (In Farsi).
  15. Lewis, M. J. (2012). Natural product screening: anti-oxidant screen for extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 15, 3-11.
  16. Liang, Z., Chen, H., Yu, Z., & Zhao, Z. (2010). Comparison of raw and processed Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (Heshouwu) by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 29.
  17. Mazid, M., Khan, T. A., & Mohammad, F. (2011). Role of secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms of plants. Biology and Medicine, 3(2), 232-249.
  18. Mobeen, A., Qurban, A., Sadia, A., Harrem, K., Ali, A., Arfan, A., Tayyab, H. (2015). Estimation of correlation among various morphological traits of Coronopus didymus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Cyperus difformis and Aristida adscensionis. New York Science Journal, 8(4), 47-52.
  19. Nelson, R. L. (2011). Managing self-pollinated germplasm collections to maximize utilization. Plant Genetic Resources, 9(1), 123-133.
  20. Ngomuo, M., Stoilova, T., Feyissa, T., & Ndakidemi, P. A. (2017). Characterization of morphological diversity of jute mallow (Corchorus). International Journal of Agronomy, (1):1-12.
  21. Niklas, K. J., Cobb, E. D., Niinemets, Ü., Reich, P. B., Sellin, A., Shipley, B., & Wright, I. J. (2007). “Diminishing returns” in the scaling of functional leaf traits across and within species groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(21), 8891-8896.
  22. Rechinger, K. H. (1982). Satureja. Flora Desiranischen Hoclandes and der Umrahmenden Gebirge, 150, 495-504.
  23. Şükran, D. E. R. E., GÜNEŞ, T., & Sivaci, R. (1998). Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll-a, b and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turkish Journal of Botany, 22(1), 13-18.
  24. Silva, T. M. P. (2013). As quintas madeirenses como oferta turística diferenciada. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidade da Madeira, Portugal.
  25. Sun, J., Fan, R., Niklas, K. J., Zhong, Q., Yang, F., Li, M., & Cheng, D. (2017). “Diminishing returns” in the scaling of leaf area vs. dry mass in Wuyi Mountain bamboos, Southeast China. American Journal of Botany, 104(7), 993-998.
  26. Talavera, M., Navarro-Sampedro, L., Ortiz, P. L., & Arista, M. (2013). Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus canariensis (Polygonaceae). Annals of Botany, 111(2), 249-260.
  27. Tavares, L., Carrilho, D., Tyagi, M., Barata, D., Serra, A. T., Duarte, C. M. M., & Espírito-Santo, M. (2010). Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants. Molecules, 15(4), 2576-2592.
  28. Vasas, A., Orbán-Gyapai, O., & Hohmann, J. (2015). The genus Rumex: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 175, 198-228.
  29. Wegiera, M., Grabarczyk, P., Baraniak, B., & Smolarz, H. D. (2011). Antiradical properties of extracts from roots, leaves and fruits of six Rumex species. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia. Series Botanica, 5(1), 125-131.
  30. Zargari, A. (1997). Medicinal plants. University of Tehran Press. Volume 4, 4275 pp. (in Farsi).