Effects of organic, biological and chemical N-fertilizers on some quantity and quality ‎characteristics of Thompson seedless grape

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Horticulture Crops Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran


To evaluate the possibility of replacing urea with organic and bio-fertilizers, a study carried out on 14 years old Thompson Seedless grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in a calcareous soil. The results showed that treatments affect cluster yield, chlorophyll index, total soluble solids and total acidity of fruit and N, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in leaves, significantly. Maximum fruit yield resulted in liquid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria+animal manure and solid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria with 11.73 and 11.83 kg/vine, respectively. All treatments showed relatively similar increase in soluble solids content and decrease in fruit acidity compared to the control. The Highest chlorophyll index and concentration of N, Fe, Mn and Zn in leaf have been reported in liquid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria+animal manure and solid inoculum of N-fixing bacteria+animal manure treatments. The nutrient balance indices were 160 and 145 in treatments without N or urea application, but the amount was decreased to about 107 and 108 in N-fixing liquid inoculum+animal manure and solid N-fixing inoculum+animal manure treatments respectively, which shows the improvement in nutritional balance status under these treatments. The results indicated that application of N bio-inoculations with animal manure more than N chemical fertilizer source improved the nutritional balance of grape and produced the highest yield, but their effect on fruit quality was similar to urea.


  1. Abbas, E. S., Bondok, S. A. & Rizk, M. H. (2006). Effect of bio and nitrogen mineral fertilizers on ‎growth and berry quality of Ruby seedless grapevines. Journal of Agriculture Science, Mansoura University, ‎‎31, 4565-4577. ‎   
  2. Abd El-Monem, A. A., Saleh, M. M. S. & Mostafa, E. A. M. (2008). Minimizing the quantity of ‎mineral nitrogen fertilizers on grapevine by using humic acid, organic and biofertilizers. Research ‎Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 4, 46-50.‎
  3. Abdel-Hady, A. M. (2003). Response of Flame seedless vines to application of some biofertilizers. ‎Minia Journal of Agriculture Research and Development, 23, 667-680.‎
  4. Abdel-Hamid, S. Y. (2002). Effect of biofertilizer on yield and berry quality of grapevines. M.Sc. ‎Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.‎
  5. Ajmal, M., Ali, H. I., Saeed, R., Akhtar, A., Tahir, M., Mehboob, M. Z., Ayub, A. (2018). ‎Biofertilizer as an alternative for chemical fertilizers. Research & Reviews: Journal of Agriculture ‎and Allied Sciences, 7 (1), 1-7. ‎
  6. Amami, A. (1995). Methods of plant analysis. (1st Vol.), Soil and Water Research Institute, ‎Publication No. 982. (in Farsi)‎
  7. ‎Ahmadi, K., Ghalizadeh, H., Ebadzadeh, H., Hatami, F., Hosseinpoor, R., Abdshah, E., Rezaei, ‎M. & Fazliabraq, M. (2016). Agricultural Statistics of 2015 (Vol. 3), Horticultural Products, ‎Planning and Economic Development, ICT Center, Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Tehran, Iran. ‎‎(in Farsi)‎
  8. Aliehiaie, M. (1997). Descriptions of methods for chemical analysis of soil (Vol. 2), Soil and Water ‎Research Institute, Publication No. 1024. (in Farsi)‎
  9. Anonymous. (2011). The Law of the 5th five-year plan of development of the Islamic Republic of ‎Iran (2011-2012). Retrieved June 15, 2017, from: http://ham-nm.blogfa.com/post-238.aspx. (in ‎Farsi)‎
  10. ‎Bhangoo, M. S., Day, K. S., Sundanagunta, V. R. & Petrucci, V. E. (1988). Application of poultry ‎manure influences Thompson seedless grape production and soil properties. Horticultural Science, ‎‎23, 1010-1012.‎
  11. ‎Bogatyre, A. N. (2000). What are we do to eat or how to live longer? Pishchevaya Promyshlemost, ‎‎7, 34-35.‎
  12. Ding, C. K., Chachin, Y., Hamauzu, Y. U. & Imahori, Y. (1998). Effects of storage temperatures ‎on physiology and quality of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 14, 309-315.‎
  13. El-Akkad, M. M. (2004). Physiological studies on vegetative growth and fruit quality in some ‎grapevine cultivars. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt. ‎
  14. ‎Grechi, I., Vivin, P., Hilbert, G., Milin, R. S. T. & Gaudillre, J. P. (2007). Effect of light and ‎nitrogen supply on internal C:N balance and control of root-to-shoot biomass allocation in ‎grapevine. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59,139-149.‎
  15. Kassem, H. A. & Marzouk, H. A. (2002). Effect of organic and/or mineral nitrogen fertilization on ‎the nutritional status, yield and fruit quality of Flame Seedless grapevines grown in calcareous soil. ‎Journal of Advanced Agriculture Research, 7,117-128.‎
  16. Khalil, A. H. (2012). The potential of biofertilizers to improve vegetative growth, nutritional status, ‎yield and fruit quality of Flame Seedless grapevines. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture& ‎Environmental Science, 12, 1122-1127.‎
  17. Khavazi, K., Asadi Rahmani, E. & Malakouti, M. J. (2004). Necessity of industrial production of ‎biological fertilizers in the country. (2nd Ed.). Soil and Water Research Institute, Senate Publication, ‎Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)‎
  18. ‎Kumar, P. S. S., Geetha, S. A., Savithri, P., Mahendran, P. P. & Ragunath, K. P. (2003). ‎Evaluation of DRIS and CND indices for effective nutrient management in Muscat grapevines (Vitisvinefera L.). Journal of Applied Horticulture, 5, 76-80.‎
  19. Malakouti, M. J., Moshiri, F., Ghibi, M. N. & S. Molavi. (2005). Optimum concentrations of ‎nutrients in soil and some garden products (first part). Council policy development and efficient use ‎of fertilizers and pesticides application of biological agriculture, Technical Publication No. 406, ‎Senate Publications, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)‎
  20. ‎Masoud, A. A. B. (2012). Effect of organic and bio nitrogen fertilization on growth, nutrient status ‎and fruiting of Flame Seedless and Ruby Seedless grapevines. Research Journal of Agricultural& ‎Biological Science, 8, 83-91.‎
  21. Mostafa, R. A. A. (2008). Effect of bio and organic nitrogen fertilization and elemental sulpher ‎application on growth, yield and fruit quality of Flame Seedless grapevines. Assiut Journal of ‎Agriculture Science, 39, 79-96.‎
  22. ‎Mostofi, Y. & Najafi, F. (2005). Analytical laboratory methods in horticulture. Tehran University ‎Press, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)‎
  23. ‎Noel, T. C., Sheng, C. Yost, C. K. P. & Hynes, M. E. (1996). Rhizobium leguminosarum as a plant ‎growth promoting Rhizobacterium direct growth promotion of canola and lettuce. Canadian Journal ‎of Microbiology, 42, 279-283.‎
  24. ‎Peacock, W. L., Christensen, L. P. & Hirschfelt, D. J. (1991). Influence of timing of nitrogen ‎fertilizer application on grapevines in the San Joaquin Valley. American Journal of Enology and ‎Viticulture, 42, 322-326‎‏.‏
  25. Rahman, L., Whitelaw-Weckert, M. A. & Orchard, B. (2011). Consecutive applications of brassica ‎green manures and seed meal enhances suppression of Meloidogyne javanica and increases yield of ‎Vitis vinifera cv Semillon. Applied Soil Ecology, 47,195-203.‎
  26. Saikia, S. P., Bora, D., Goswami, A., Mudoi, K. D. & Gogoi, A. (2012). A review on the role of ‎Azospirillum in the yield improvement of non leguminous crops. African Journal of Microbiology ‎Research, 6, 1085-1102.‎
  27. Sala, F. & Blidariu, C. (2012). Macro- and micronutrient content in grapevine cordons under the ‎influence of organic and mineral fertilization. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and ‎Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Horticulture, 69, 317-324. ‎
  28. ‎Samadi, A. & Majidi, A. (2009). Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system to determine the ‎reference numbers (DRIS) and comparing it with deviation from optimum percentage (DOP) in ‎seedless grapes. Journal of Soil Science (Soil and Water Science), 24 (2), 106-89. (in Farsi)‎
  29. ‎Shaahan, M. M., El-Sayed, A. A. & Abou El-Nour, E. A. A. (1999). Predicting nitrogen, ‎magnesium and iron nutritional status in some perennial crops using a portable chlorophyll meter. ‎Scientia Horticulture, 82, 339-348.‎
  30. ‎Shehata, W. A. M. (2008). Studies on bio-fertilization of olive transplants. M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty ‎of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.‎
  31. ‎Silva, D. J., Bassoi, L. H., Rocha, M. G., Silva, A. O. & Deon, M. D. (2016). Organic and nitrogen ‎fertilization of soil under ‘Syrah’ grapevine: effects on soil chemical properties and nitrate ‎concentration. Revista Brasilera de Ciencia do Solo, 40, e0150073.‎
  32. ‎Singh, R. D. (1999). Status of integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS) in Uttar Pradesh. India ‎Fertilizer News, 448, 39-41.‎
  33. ‎Soil Survey Staff. (2014). Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC.
  34. ‎ Stevenson, F. J. (1991). Organic matter-micronutrient reactions in soil. In: J. J. Mortvedt, F.R. Cox, L.M. Shuman, R.M. Welch (Eds.), Micronutrients in agriculture. 2nd edn. (pp. 145–186.)  Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI.
  35. ‎Suba Rao, N. S. (1984). Biofertilizers in agriculture. Oxford. IBH Company, New Delhi.‎
  36. Tagliavini, M. Scudellazi, D. Marangoni, B. & Toselli, M. (1996). Nitrogen fertilization ‎management in orchards to reconcile productivity and environmental aspects. Fertilizer Research, ‎‎43, 93-102.‎
  37. ‎Verna, L. N. (1999). Role of biotechnology in supplying plant nutrients in the vineties. Fertilizer ‎News, 35, 87-97.‎
  38. ‎Wani, S. P. & Lee, K. K. (1995). Microorganisms as biological inputs for sustainable agriculture. ‎In: P. K. Thampan (Ed.). Organic agriculture, theory and Practices, (pp.36-76.) Peekay Tree crops ‎development Foundation, Gandhi Nagar-Cochin 682-220.‎
  39. ‎Yu, X., Wang, B., Zhang, C., Xu, W., He, J., Zhu, L. & Wang, S. (2007). Effect of root restriction ‎on nitrogen levels and glutamine synthetase activity in Kyoho grapevines. Scientia Horticulture, ‎‎137, 156-163.‎
  40. Zhu, L., Wang, S., Yang, T., Zhang, C. & Xu, W. (2006). Vine growth and nitrogen metabolism of Fujiminori ‎grapevines in response to root restriction. Sciatica Horticulture, 107, 143-149.‎