The effect of different colored netting on morphological and physiological traits of ‎common marigold, violet, croton and aglaonema‎

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Ph.D. Graduated in Horticulture Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Horticulture Crops Research Department, Gilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education ‎Center, AREEO, Lahijan, Iran‎

3 Associate Professor, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran


A new group of colored shades called photo-selective netting shades are being developed, which can the affect the quality and quantity of light received by the plants, and at the same time provide optimal protection for them. Therefore, in order to investigate the use of colored shades (red, green and yellow) on the morphological and physiological characteristics of marigold, violet, croton and aglaonema, two separate experiments were carried out in winter and spring at Lahijan Flower and Ornamental Plants Research Station. The evaluated morphological traits included: plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoot and physiological traits included chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, flavonoid, antioxidant capacity and catalase and peroxidase enzymes. The results showed that the yellow shade increased the vegetative power of the plants. The interaction effects of shade and plant species showed that the highest plant height, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content the plant were related to yellow shade and violet treatment. The results showed that the highest amount of anthocyanin, carotenoid and catalase was obtained under the red shade and the highest amount of total chlorophyll was obtained under the red and yellow shades in croton and aglaonema. The results of this research showed that the use of colored shades compared to not using shades created more favorable growth conditions for plants. Also, the yellow and red shades were better for the growth of the tested plants than the green shades and no shade and had a more favorable effect on the growth of the plants.


  1. Addy, S. K. & Goodman, R. N. (1972) Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in apple leaves inoculated with a virulent or an avirulent strain for Ervinia amylovora. Indian Phytopathology, 25, 575-579.
  2. Agricultural Meteorology. (2018) Meteorological organization of Iran. Meteorological Journal of Gilan Province, No. 2. 21 p.
  3. Brown, C. S., Schuerger, A. C. & Sager, J. C. (1995) Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red lightemitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 120, 808-813.
  4. Buthelezi, M. N .D., Soundy, P., Jifon, J. & Sivakumar, D. (2016) Spectral quality of photo-selective nets improves phytochemicals and aroma volatiles in coriander leaves (Coriandrumsativum) after postharvest storage. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology, 161, 328-334.
  5. Chance, B. & Maehly, A. C. (1995) Assay of catalase and peroxidase. In: Colowick S. P., and N. D. Kaplan. (eds.). Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press. New York, 2, 764-791.
  6. Demotes-Mainard, S., Péron, T., Corot, A., Bertheloot, J., Gourrierec, J., Le Travier, S. & Sakr, S. (2016) Plant responses to red and far-red lights, applications in horticulture. Environmentaland Experimental Botany, 121, 4-21.
  7. Dole, J. M. & Wilkins, H. F. (1999). Floriculture, principles and species. Prentice Hall Com. Pp. 612.
  8. Dueck, T., Van Ieperen, W. & Taulavuori, K. (2016) Light perception, signaling and plant responses to spectral quality and photoperiod in natural and horticultural environments. Environmentaland Experimental Botany, 121, 1-3.
  9. Eisvand, H. R. & Ashoori, P. (2010) Physiology of stress. Lorestan University, Lorestan. 288 P. (in Farsi).
  10. Flaishman, M. A., Peles, Y., Dahan, Y., Milo-Cochavi, S., Frieman, A. & Naor, A. (2015) Differential response of cell-cycle and cell-expansion regulators to heat stress in apple (Malus domestics) fruitlets. Plant Science, 233, 82-89.
  11. Forghani, H. & KianiAbri, M. (2005) A study of relative advantage of the production and export of flowers and ornamental plants in selected provinces. Iranian Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 5 (19), 53-64. (In Farsi).
  12. Fu, W., Li, P. & Wu, Y. (2012) Effects of different light intensities on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and yield in lettuce. Scientia Horticulturae, 135, 45-51.
  13. Garc´ıa-Alonso, M., Rimbach, G., Rivas-Gonzalo, J. C. &Pascual-Teresa, S. (2004) Antioxidant and cellular activities of anthocyanins and their corresponding vitisins a studies in platelets, monocytes, and human endothelial cells. Journal of Agriculturaland Food Chemistry, 52, 3378-3384.
  14. Ghasemi Ghahsareh, M. & Kafi, M. (2007) Scientific and applied floriculture. Golbon Press. 244 p. (in Farsi).
  15. Gonçalves, J. F. D. C., Marenco, R. A. & Vieira, G. (2001) Concentration of photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence of mahogany and tonka bean under two light environments. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal, 13, 149-157.
  16. Haghshenas, M. & Ghiabaklou, Z. (2009) Investigation of tinted glazing's effect in transmission of daylight and energy in the visible spectrum. Journal of Color Science and Technology, 2 (4), 213-220. (In Farsi).
  17. Humadi, S. S. & Istudor, V. (2008) Quantitative analysis of bio-active compound in Hibiscus sabdariffa Note I quantitative analysis of flavonoids. Farmacia, 6, 669- 707.
  18. Ilić, S. Z. & Milenković, L. (2012) The influence of photoselective shade nets on quality of tomatoes grown under a plastic tunnels and field conditions. In: Proceedings. The 4th Joint UNS– PSU International Conference of BioScience, Biotechnology and Biodiversity. Novi Sad, 25-34.
  19. Ilić, S. Z., Milenković, L., Dimitrijevićb, A., Stanojevićc, L., Cvetkovićc, D., Kevrešand, Ž., Fallike, E. & Mastilovićd, J. (2017) Light modification by color nets improve quality of lettuce from summer production. Scientia Horticulturae, 226, 389-397.
  20. Kim, H. H., Goins, G. D., Wheeler, R. M. & Sager, J. C. (2004) Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-light-emitting diodes. HortScience, 39(7), 1617-1622.
  21. Kong, Y., Avraham, L., Perzelan, Y., Alkalai-Tuvia, S., Ratner, K., Shahak, Y. &Fallik, E. (2013) Pearl netting affects postharvest fruit quality in ‘vergasa’ sweet pepper via light environment manipulation. Scientia Horticulturae 150, 290-298.
  22. Kong, Y., Avraham, L., Ratner, K. & Shahak, Y. (2012) Response of photosynthetic parameters of sweet pepper leaves to light quality manipulation by photoselective shade nets. Acta Horticulturae, 956, 501–506.
  23. Kumar Gaurav, A., Raju, D.V.S., Janakiram, T., Singh, B., Jain, R., Gopala Krishnan, S. (2016). Effect of different coloured shade nets on production and quality of cordyline. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 86(7), 865-9.
  24. Lee, D. W., Oberbauer, S. F., Krishnapilay, B., Mansor, M., Mohamad, H., Yap, S. K. (1997) Effects of irradiance and spectral quality on seedling development of two Southeast Asian Hopea Oecologia, 110, 1-9.
  25. Liu, W. (2012) Light environmental management for artificial protected horticulture. Agrotechnology, v. 1, p.1-4.
  26. Mancinelli, L. (1990) Interaction between light quality and light quantity in the photoregulation of antocyaninproduction. Plant Physiology, 92, 1191-1195.
  27. Martin, R. J. & Deo, B. (1999) Effect of plant population on calendula flower production. Newzealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 28: 37-44.
  28. Mazumdar, B. C. & Majumder, K. (2003) Methods on physcochemical analysis of fruits. University College of Agriculture, Calcutta.
  29. Miller, G., Suzuki, N., Yilmaz, S. & Mittler, R. (2010) Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signaling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant, Cell & Environment, 33, 453-467.
  30. Moein, M. R., Moein, S. & Ahmadizadeh, S. (2008) Radical scavenging and reducing power of Salvia mirzayanii Molecules, 13, 2804-2013.
  31. Moll, R. H. & Kamparth, E. J. (1977) Effect of population density upon agronomic traits associated with genetic increases in yield of (Zea mays). AgronomyJournal, 69, 81-84.
  32. Ntsoane, M. L. (2015) Effect of photo-selective nettings on plant growth, quality at harvest and after postharvest storage in lettuce varieties. S.c. Thesis. Faclty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology. Pretoria. South Africa.
  33. Oh, M. M., Carey, E. E. & Rajashekar, C. B. (2009) Environmental stresses induce health-promoting phytochemicals in lettuce. Plant Physiologyand Biochemistry, 47, 578-583.
  34. Omidbeigi, R. (2003) Production and processing of medicinal herbs. Astan-e Qods-e Razavi Press. 347 p. (in Farsi).
  35. Oren-Shamir, M., Gussakovsky, E.E., Shpiegel, E., Nissim-Levi, A., Ratner, K., Ovadia, R., Giller, Y.E. & Shahak, Y. (2001). Coloured shade nets can improve the yield and quality of green decorative branches of Pittosporum variegatum. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 76, 353-361.
  36. Safaii, B., Khalaji Asadi, M., Taghizadeh, H., Jilavi, A., Taleghani, G. & Danesh, M. (2005). Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Iran and Related Radiation Atlas. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 33, 27-34.
  37. Selahle, M. K., Sivakumar, D. & Soundy, P. (2014) Effect of photo-selective nettings on postharvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars. Journalof the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 2187-2195.
  38. Shahak, Y. (2008) Photoselective netting for improved performance of horticultural crops. A review of ornamental and vegetable studies carried in Israel. Acta Horticulturae, 770, 161-168
  39. Shahak, Y., Gussakovsky, E. E., Cohen, Y., Lurie, S., Stern, R., Kfir, S., Naor, A., Atzmon, I., Doron, I. & Greenblat-Avron, Y. (2004) Color nets: A new approach for light manipulation in fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 636, 609-616.
  40. Shahak, Y., Kon, Y. & Ratner, K. (2016) The wonders of yellow netting. Acta Horticulturae, 43, 327-334.
  41. Stuefer, J. F. & Huber. H. (1998) Differential effects of light quantity and spectral light quality on growth, morphology and development of two stoloniferous Potentilla Oecologia, 117, 1-8.
  42. Tinyane, P. P., Sivakumar, D. & Soundy, P. (2013) Influence of photo-selective netting on fruit quality parameters and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 161, 340-349.
  43. Yamasaki, H., Sakihama, Y. & Ikehara, N. (1997) Flavonoid-peroxidase reaction as a detoxification mechanism of plant cells against H2O2. Plant Physiology, 115, 1405-1412.