Effects of different levels of vermicompost on flower yield and its components in ‎genotypes of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) in Golestan province

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Golestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran

2 ‎Ph.D. in Agronomy of Institute of Education and Extension, AREEO, Tehran, Iran

3 M.Sc. in Forestry, Golestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center. AREEO, Gorgan, Iran


In order to investigate the effect of vermicompost on the flower yield and its components in genotypes of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.), a factorial experiment was carried out based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications since 2018-2020 years in the Research Field of Golestan Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Experimental factors were included three levels of vermicompost (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1) and four levels of Damask rose genotypes (Kashan, Semnan, Azerbaijan Garbi and Golestan). In this experiment, average plant height, number of flower per plant, flower diameter, fresh weight of flower per plant, dray weight of  flower per plant, yield of fresh flowers and yield of dry flowers were measured for each treatment. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the treatments combinations in terms of all the studied traits (P<0.01). The highest average plant height, maximum number of flowers per plant, highest flower diameter, highest fresh flower yield and dry flower yield were obtained in all genotypes in the maximum application of vermicompost (10 ton/ha). In terms of flower yield, Kashan genotype with fresh flower yield 2319.35 kg/ha and yield of dry flower with 651.22 kg/ha has the highest and Golestan genotype with fresh flower yield 1317.16 kg/ha and dry flower yield with 452.23 kg/ha had the lowest flower yield. Also signification correlation was observed between some of the quantitative traits in this experiment, yield of dry flowers per hectare direct and high relationship with the number of flowers per plant (r=0.95) and fresh flower yield (r = 0.96).


  1. Abbaszadeh, B., & Zakerian, F. (2016). Melissa affects uptake in two arbuscular fungal species, fungi of mycorrhiza and vermicompost. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32(1), 47-59 (In Farsi).
  2. Amiri, M., Rezvani Moghadam, P., & Jahan, M. )2018(. Evaluation of morphological characteristics, quantitative and qualitative yield of Echium amoenum as affected by plant density and application of chemical (urea) fertilizer and different organic fertilizers. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 47(1), 55-69. (In Farsi).
  3. Anwar, M., Patra, D. D., Chand, S., Alpesh, K., Naqvi, A. A., & Khanuja, S. P. S. )2005(. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation and oil quality of French basil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36(13), 1737-1746.
  4. Arancon, N., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P., Welch, C., & Metzger, J. D. (2011). Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: effects on growth and yields. Journal of Bioresource Technology, 93، 145-153.
  5. Ashnavar, M., Bahmanyar, M., Akbarpor, V., & Ghorbani, N. (2016). The effect of phosphorus and vermicompost nanofertilizers on yield, yield components and percentage of German chamomile essential oil (Matricaria chamomilla). Journal of Crops Improvement. 19 (1), 177-187. (In Farsi).
  6. Azeez, J. O., Van Averbeke, W., & Okorogbona, A. O. M. (2010). Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima ) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures. Bioresource Technology,101(7), 2499-2505.
  7. Azizi, M., Rezvani, F., Hasanzadeh, M., Lekzian, A., & Nemati, H. )2008(. Effect of vermicompost levels and irrigation on morphological traits and essential oil of Matricaria chamomile. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 24(1), 82-93. (In Farsi).
  8. Bauma, C., El-Tohamy, W., & Gruda, N. )2015(. Increasing the productivity and product quality of vegetable crops using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A review. Scientia Horticulturae, 187, 131-141.
  9. Baydar, H., & Baydar, N. G. )2005(. The effects of harvest date, fermentation duration and Tween 20 treatment on essential oil content and composition of industrial oil rose (Rose damascena ). Industrial Crops and Products, 21(2), 251-255.
  10. Bigohna, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., & Jahan, M. )2014(. Investigation of the effect of different fertilizer managements on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Iranian Journal of Crop Research. 12 (4), 574-581. (In Farsi).
  11. Darzi, M.T., Hadjseyed Hadi, M. R., & Atarpoor, R. (2016). Effects of different manure and vermicompost rates on yield and essential oil contents of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica). Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science, 46 (4), 4711-721. (In Farsi).
  12. Fatma, E. M., Gharib, F.A., Moussa, A., & Massoud, O. N. )2008(. Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis) plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10, 381-387.
  13. Gudin, S. )2000(. Rose: Genetics and breeding. Plant Breeding Review, 17 ,159-189.
  14. Gurav, S., Katwate, S., Patel, M., Singh, B., Mirra, , & Missa, S. )2010(. Fertigation of roses under natural ventilated polyhouse conditions. Floriculture Research Trend in India, pp. 222-223.
  15. Iqbal, M., Akhtar, N., Zafar, , & Ali, I.) 2008(. Genotypic responses for yield and seed oil quality of tow Brassica species under semi-arid environment conditions. South African Journal of Biotechnology, 74, 567-571.
  16. Kapoor, R., Giri, B., & Mukerji, K.G. )2004(. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology, 93, 307-311.
  17. Kazaz, S., Erbas, S., Baydar, H., Dilmacunal, T. & Koyuncu, M. A. )2010(. Cold storage of oil rose (Rosa damascene) flowers. Scientia Horticulture, 126, 284-290.
  18. Kudori, M. R., Rahmani, G., Tabaei-Aghdaei, S. R., Darvishi Zeinabadi, D., Khoshroo, S. M. R., & Sharifi yazdi. (2015). Variation in flower yield and mprphological characteristics of Damask rose. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5(12), 208-216.
  19. Jaimand, K., Rezaii, M. B., Asareh, M. H., & Barazendah, M. M. (2005). Comparison of quantity and quality of essential oils in (Rosa damascene ). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 21, 283-299. (In Farsi).
  20. Liuc, , & Pank, B. )2005(. Effect of vermicompost and fertility levels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile. Sciential Pharmaceutic, 46, 63-69.
  21. Lebaschi, M. H. (2012). Yield and quality of Damask rose (Rosa damascena ) genotypes under irrigated conditions. Annals and Biological Research, 3(5), 2048-2152.
  22. Mamta, B., Rahic, R., Pathaniad, V., Gulatic, B., & Tewaria, R. )2010(. Stimulatory effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on plant growth, stevioside and rebaudioside-A contents of Stevia rebaudiana Applied Soil Ecology, 46, 222-229.
  23. Moradi, R., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Lakzian, A., & Nejad Ali, A. (2011). The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Horticultural Science, 25(1), 25-33. (In Farsi).
  24. Moradi, R., Rezvani, M.P., Nasiri, M. M., & Lakzian, A. )2010(. The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Iranian Journal of Agronomy Research, 7(2), 625-635. (In Farsi).
  25. Omidbaigi, R. (2007). Production and processing of medicinal plants. (4th). Astan Ghods Publication. Vol. 2, 438 p, (In Farsi)
  26. Omidbaigi, R., Ftttahi, F., Fattahi, F., & Karimzadeh, G. )2010(. Harvaest time affect on the herb yield and essential oil content of lemon thyme (Thymus citriodorus). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26(3), 317-325. (In Farsi).
  27. Pandey, B. P., Thapa, R., & Upreti, A. (2017). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris and Gaultheria fragrantissima collected from Nepal. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 10(10), 952-959.
  28. Rahmani, , Mirza, M., & Tabai Aghdaei, S. R. )2013(. Effects of different fertilizers (macro and micro elements) on quantity and quality of essential oil and other byproducts of Rosa damascena Mill. in Iran. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29 (4) ,747-759. (In Farsi).
  29. Rahmanian, M., Esmaielpour, B., Hadian, J., Shahriari, M. H., & Fatemi, H. )2017(. The effect of organic fertilizers on morphological traits, essential oil content and components of basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 72(3), 103-118. (In Farsi).
  30. Rezaee, M. B., Naderi Hagy Bagher Candy, M., & Tabaei Aghdaei, R. )2013(. Effects of different fertilizers (macro and micro elements) on quantity and quality of essential oil and other byproducts of Rosa damascena Mill. in Iran. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29(4), 747-759. (In Farsi).
  31. Sinha, R. K., Dalsukh, V., Krunal, C., & Sunita, ) 2010(. Embarking on a second green revolution for sustainable agriculture by vermin culture biotechnology using earthworms: Reviving the dreams of Sir Charles Darwin. Journal of Agriculture Biotechnol. Sustainable Development, 2(7), 113-128.
  32. Supratim, B., Roel, C. R., & Sangeeta, N. (2018). AMF: The future prospect for sustainable agriculture. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 102, 36-45.
  33. Tabaei-Aghdaei, S., Rezaei, M. B., & Jaymand, K. (2004). Study of diversity of Rosa damascena Mill genotypes in western Iran in essential oil production. Iranian Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 20 (4), 533-546. (In Farsi).
  34. Yanga, , Zhaoa, F., Changa, Q., Li, T., & Li, F. (2015). Effects of vermicomposts on tomato yield and quality and soil fertility in greenhouse under different soil water regimes. Agricultural Water Management, 160, 98-105.
  35. Yousefi, B. (2018). Evaluation of genetic diversity of flower yield and its components in 12 local genotypes of Rosa damascena in Kurdistan province. Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science, 50, 723-732. (in Farsi).
  36. Yousefi, B., & Fadakar, A. (2022). Effect of environmental variation on the flower and essential oil yield of superior genotypes of Rosa damascena (case study: Kurdestan province). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 52 (4), 779-788. (In Farsi).