Evaluation of the use of agricultural industry wastes enriched with nutritional ‎supplements on yield, medicinal and nutritional value of Lion's mane mushroom ‎‎(Hercium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon)‎

Document Type : Full Paper


1 M. Sc. Student,, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

2 Assistant Professor and Instructor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

5 Instructor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

6 Ph. D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran


Due to the fact that the common substrate for production most of the edible-pharmaceutical mushrooms is the sawdust of trees. But the replacement of other lignocellulosic compounds with enrichment with chemical supplements is of great importance in the production of fruiting body of mushroom. In this study, which was conducted at Zabol University in 1997, the substrates were prepared based on various agricultural wastes. The aim of this study was to investigate composition and non-composition substrates, and to investigate some vegetative, reproductive, nutritional and medicinal properties of iranian isolate Hericium erinaceus (Lion's mane). Treatments included sugarcane bagasse + poplar sawdust (50 to 50), sugarcane bagasse + rice bran (70 to 30), poplar sawdust + rice bran (65 to 35), poplar sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse + date palm sawdust (60 to 40), poplar sawdust + date palm sawdust (65 to 35), date palm sawdust and wheat bran + date palm sawdust (40 to 60) that enriched with chemical supplements of ammonium nitrate (80 ug. g d.m), manganese sulfate (20 ug.kg d.m) and nano-manganese oxide (20 ug.kg.dm). The results showed that in the composition substrate of date palm leaf and wheat bran, the vegetative growth of the mushroom was completed in the shortest time. Mushrooms produced from composition substrate sugarcane bagasse with poplar sawdust had the highest amount of total polysaccharides of fruit body as well as highest yield of fruit body of mushroom (fresh weight) belongs to composition substrate sugarcane bagasse with poplar sawdust enriched with nano-manganese oxide supplement. The highest values of antioxidant capacity (73.45%) were attributed to mushrooms produced on composition substrates sugarcane bagasse with poplar sawdust enriched with nano-manganese oxide supplement. Also, the highest amounts of calcium (23.07mg/100g dry matter of mushroom) in the fruit body belong to the composition substrates of poplar sawdust with rice bran enriched with ammonium nitrate (65 to 35).


  1. Adenipekun, C. O., & Gbolagade, J. S. (2006). Nutritional requirements of Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer, a Nigerian mushroom. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5(6), 597-600.
  2. (1995). Association of official analytical communities. Official method of analysis. (18th ed.). Washington DC, USA.
  3. Asef Shayan, M. R. (2016). Iranian medicinal fungi. Iranology Publication. 360 p. (In Farsi).
  4. Atila, F. (2018). Comparative study on the mycelial growthl and yield of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt: Fr.) Karst. on different lignocellulosic wastes. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 40(2), 153-157.
  5. Atila, F. (2019). Compositional changes in lignocellulosic content of some agro-wastes during the production cycle of shiitake mushroom. Scientia Horticulturae, 245, 263–268.
  6. Atila, F., Tüzel, Y., Faz Cano, A. & Fernandez, J.A. (2017). Effect of different lignocellulosic wastes on Hericium americanum yield and nutritional characteristics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97(2), 606-612.
  7. Attaran Dowom, S., Rezaeian, S. & Pourianfar, H. R. (2019). Agronomic and environmental factors affecting cultivation of the winter mushroom or enokitake (Flammulina velutipes): achievements and prospects. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology6, 2469-2481.
  8. Azizi, A. (1997). Utilization of agricultural wastes for production of oyster mushroom and livestock feed. Agricultural Education Publishing, 48 p. (in Farsi).
  9. Badalyan, S. M. (2003). Edible and medicinal higher basidiomycetes mushrooms as a source of natural antioxidants. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 5,153–163.
  10. Chang, S. T. & Miles, P. G. (2004). Mushrooms cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and environmental impact. CRC press, 477 pp.
  11. Chih-Hung, L., Chiu-The, W., Pei-Luen, L. & Yun-Chen, K. (2019). Biological efficiency and nutritional value of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Auricularia polytricha cultivated on a sawdust basal substrate supplement with different proportions of grass plants. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 26 (2), 263-269.
  12. Cilerdzic, J., Stajic, M., Zivkovic, L., Vukojevic, J., Bajic, V. & Spremo-Potparevic, B. (2016). Genoprotective capacity of alternatively cultivated lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), Basidiocarps. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 18(12), 1061-1069.
  13. Curvetto, N. R., Figlas, D., Devalis, R. & Delmastro, S. (2002). Growth and productivity of different Pleurotus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N-NH+4 and/or Mn. Bioresource Technology, 84, 171-176.
  14. Eisenhut, R., Fritz, D. & Tiefel, P. (1995). Investigations on nutritionally valuable constituents (mineral substances, amino acids, aromatic substances) of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 60(5), 212-218.
  15. Emami, A. (1996). Plant decomposition methods. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO). Soil and Water Research Institute. 342 p. (in Farsi).
  16. Erkel, E. I. (2009). The effect of different substrate mediums on yield of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt: Fr.) Karst. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 77 (3), 841-844.
  17. Figlas, D., Matute, R. G. & Curvetto, N. (2007). Cultivation of culinary-medicinal lion’s mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) on substrate containing sunflower seed hulls. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 9(1), 67-73.
  18. Gaitán-Hernández, R., Esqueda, M., Gutierrez, A. & Beltran-Garcia, M. (2011). Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignicellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 42 (1), 30-40.
  19. Georges, M., Halpern, M. D. & Andrew, H. M. (2002). Medicinal Ancient remedies for modern ailments. M. Evans Company, 185 p.
  20. Gurung, O. K., Budathoki, U. & Parajuli, G. (2012). Effect of different substrates on the production of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt: Fr.) Karst. Our Nature, 10 (1), 191-198.
  21. Harith, N., Abdullah, N. & Sabaratnam, V. (2014). Cultivation of Flammulina velutipes mushroom using various agro-residues as a fruiting substrate. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira–PAB, 49(2), 181-188.
  22. Hoa, H. T., Wang, & Wang, C. H. (2015). The effects of different substrates on the growth, yield, and nutritional composition of two oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus). Mycobiology, 43(4), 423-434.
  23. Hwang, S. G., Li, Y. Y. & Lin, H. L. (2015). The use of sawdust mixed with ground branches pruned from wax apple or indian jujube as substrate for cultivation of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii). Hortscience, 50(8), 1230-1233.
  24. Imtiaj, A., Jayasinghe, C., Lee, G.W., Shim, M. J., Rho, H. S., Lee Hur, H., Lee, M. W., Lee, U. Y. & Lee, T. S. (2008). Vegetative growth of four strains of Hericium erinaceus collected from different habitats. Mycobiology, 36(2), 88-92.
  25. Jafarpour, M., Jalalizand, A. & Eghbalsaled, S. (2011). High fiber media as the most efficient substrates for Pleurotus florida culture. Archives of Biological Sciences, 63 (3), 889-895.
  26. JafarPour, M., Poursaeid, N., Jalali Zand, A., Golparvar, A. R. & Behdad, M. (2009). Effect of some of the wastes of agricultural conversion industries and food supplements on some of the specifications of the edible mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 4(2), 188-203.
  27. Kazemi-Jeznabadi, E., Jafarpour, M., Eghbalsaied, S. & Pessarakli, M. (2016). Effects of various substrates and supplements on king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii). Compost Science & Utilization, 11(4), 1-10.
  28. Khan, M. D. A., Tania, M., Amin, S. M. R., Alam, N. & Uddin, M. N. (2008). An investigation on the nutritional composition of mushroom (Pleurotus florida) cultivated on different substrates. Bangladesh Journal of Mushroom, 2, 17-23.
  29. Kim, Y. D., Ha, K. Y., Lee, J. K. & Kim, S. D. (2000). Variability of rice koji enzyme activities using Basidiomycete. International Rice Research Notes, 25(3), 10-15.
  30. Kimasi, A., Ramezan, D., Aran, M., Bagheri, R., & Nasiri Dehsorkhi, A. (2019). Investigating the effects of substrate and nutritional supplements on some vegetative and reproductive characteristics of salmon oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 50(3), 571-585. (in Farsi).
  31. Kumari, R. (2017). In-vitro propagation of Ganoderma lucidum–A medicinal mushroom in different culture medium. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 2(4), 294-297.
  32. Li, W., Zhou, W., Kim, E.J., Shim, S.H., Kang, H.K. & Kim, Y.H. (2015). Isolation and identification of aromatic compounds in lion’s mane mushroom and their anticancer activities. Food Chemistry, 170, 336-342.
  33. Lin, Q., Long, L., Wu, L., Zhang, F., Wu, S., Zhang, W. & Sun, X. (2017). Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97, 3476-3480.
  34. Miliauskas, G., Venskutonis, P. R & Van Beek, T. A. (2004). Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chemistry, 85, 231-237.
  35. Mohammadi-Goltapeh, A. & Pourjam, (1994). Principles of edible mushroom cultivation. Tarbiat Modares University Press, 556 pp. (in Farsi).
  36. Mojadadi, S.H., Ebtekar, M., & Mohammad-Hassan, Z. (2006). Immunomodulatory activity of G. lucidum polysaccharide extract delayed type hypersensitivity. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 8(1), 1-5.
  37. Mondal, S. R., Rehana, M. J. Noman, M. S. & Adhikary, K. (2010). Comparative study on growth and yield performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) on different substrates. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 8(2), 213-220.
  38. Mottaghi, H. (2006). Oyster mushroom and other edible mushroom, technology and producing. Andisheh Farda Publications. 328 p. (in Farsi).
  39. Oyetayo, V. O. & Ariyo, O. O. (2013). Micro and macronutrient properties of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) cultivated on different wood substrates. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(3), 223-226.
  40. Ozcelik, E. & Peksen, A. (2007). Hazelnut husk as a substrate for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). Bioresource Technology, 98(14), 2652-2658.
  41. Park, Y.J., Know, O.C., Son, E.S., Yoon, D.E., Han, W., Yoo, Y.B. & Lee, C.S. (2012). Taxonomy of Ganoderma lucidum from Korea based on rDNA and partial β-tubulin gene sequence analysis. Mycobiology, 40, 71-75.
  42. Peksen, A. & Yakupoglu, G. (2009). Tea waste as a supplement for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25, 611-618.
  43. Quds-Vali, A. (2010). Planting and cultivating edible and medicinal fungi (Jun-Cao technology). Iranian Agricultural Science Publishing. 217 p. (in Farsi).
  44. Ragunathan, R., Gurusamy, R., Palaniswamy, M. & Swaminathan, K. (1999). Cultivation of Pleurotus on various agro-residues. Food Chemistry, 55, 139-144.
  45. Rahman, M. H., Ahmed, K. U., Roy, T. S., Mandal, M. S. H. & AlamL, M. R. (2013). Effect of chemical fertilizer supplements with rice straw on the growth and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 9(2), 47-51.
  46. Ramezan, D., Moradipour, F & Zarabi, M.M. (2019). Evaluation effects of substrate enrichment by chemical and biological supplements on some qualitative characteristics and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 50 (2), 295-310. (in Farsi).
  47. Royse, D. & Sanchez, J. E. (2007). Ground wheat straw as a substitute for portions of oak wood chips used in shiitake (Lentinula edodes) substrate formulae. Bioresource Technology, 98(11), 2137- 2141.
  48. Royse, D. J. (1996). Specialty mushrooms. Progress in new crops. In: Proceedings of the Third National Symposium; Oct 22–25; Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Alexandria.
  49. Sakamoto, Y. (2018). Influences of environmental factors on fruiting body induction, development and maturation in mushroom-forming fungi. Fungal Biology Reviews, 32, 236-248.
  50. Salman Naeem, , Asif Ali, M., Sajid, A., Sardar, H., Liaqat, R & Shafiq, M. (2014). Growth and yield performance of oyster mushroom on different substrates. Mycopathology, 12(1), 9-15.
  51. Smith, J., Rowan, N. & Sullivan, R. (2002). Medicinal mushrooms: Their therapeutic properties and current medical usage with special emphasis on cancer Cancer Research, UK. 268 p.
  52. Solgi, M. (2015). Nanotechnology and its applications in horticultural sciences. Arak University Press. 176 pp. (in Farsi).
  53. Staments, P. (2000). Growing gourmet and medicinal mushroom 3rd edition. Olimpia, WA: Ten Speed Press.
  54. Tatsuya, M., Akio M., Norimasa, I., Tokifumi, M., Shin-Ichiro, N. & Yuan, C.L. (2005). Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol–sulfuric acid method in microplate format. Analytical Biochemistry, 339 (1), 69-72.
  55. Wang, J. C., Hu, S. H., Lee, W., Tsai, L. Y. (2001). Antimutagenicity of extracts of Hericium erinaceus. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 17(5), 230-238.
  56. Weil, D. A., Beelman, R. B. & Beyer, D. M. (2006). Manganese and other micronutrient additions to improve yield of Agaricus bisporus. Bioresource Technology, 97, 1012-1017.
  57. Yang, W., Guo, F. & Wan, Z. (2013). Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 20, 333-338.
  58. Zied, D. C., & Pardo-Giménez, A. (2011). Soybean the main nitrogen source cultivation substrates of edible and medicinal mushrooms. In: El-Shamy, H. (Ed.), Soybean and Nutrition, pp, 434-452
Volume 52, Issue 4
February 2022
Pages 799-812
  • Receive Date: 23 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 09 January 2021
  • Accept Date: 16 January 2021
  • First Publish Date: 21 January 2022