Evaluation of the effect of superabsorbent materials and mycorrhizae on growing ‎traits and yield of potato in deficit irrigation conditions

Document Type : Full Paper


Associate of Professor, Horticulture Crops Research Department, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Hamedan, Iran


In order to investigate the effect of superabsorbent and mycorrhizal fungi on reducing water consumption, growth traits and potato yield, an experiment with strip-factorial design was performed. In this study, the amount of irrigation water at three levels (100, 75 and 50% of water requirement based on evapotranspiration) in horizontal plots and the use of Trawat200A super absorbent with two levels (0 and 80 kg / ha) and mycorrhiza on two levels (inoculation and non-inoculation with Glomus etunicatum) were placed in vertical plots. The results of combined analysis of variance showed that effect of irrigation and the use of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent were significant in most vegetative traits as well as yield. Means comparison showed that vegetative traits and total yield decreased by application of low irrigation, but this decrease was significantly less in mycorrhizal inoculation conditions and with the application of superabsorbent polymer. Under moderate and severe stress conditions, the combined use of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent increased the total yield compared to non-consumption (control) by about 9.5% and 10.15%, respectively.


  1. Abedi, N., Golchin, A., Shafiei, S. & Besharati, H. (2018). The affect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorhizal fungi on yield and quality of potato under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 49 (2), 395-406. (In Farsi).
  2. Amerian, M. R. & Stewart, W.S. (2001). Effect of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth assimilation and leaf water relations in maize (Zea mays). Aspects of Applied Biology, 63, 1-6.
  3. Amerian, M. R. & Stewart, W.S. (2001). Effect of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth assimilation and leaf water relations in maize (Zea mays). Aspects of Applied Biology, 63, 1-6.
  4. Al-Karaki, G. N., McMichael, B. & Zak, J. (2004). Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza, 14, 263-269.
  5. Augé, R. M. (2000). Stomatal behaviour of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. In Arbuscular mycorrhizas: physiology and function. Edited by Kapulnik, Y. & Douds, J. D. D. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
  6. Bagheri, V., Shamshiri, M., Alaei, H. & Salehi, H. (2019). Influence of three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and nutrients uptake in zinnia plant under drought stress conditions. Journal of Plant Productions Agronomy and Breeding and Horticulture, 41(4), 83-96. (In Farsi).
  7. Banedj Schafiee, S. & Rahbar, E. (2019). Efficiency of a hydrophilic polymer in agriculture and natural resources. Iranian Journal of Rangeland and Desert research, 10 (1), 111-129. (In Farsi).
  8. Bigdelinasab, H., Solgi, M. & Taghizadeh, M. (2020). The application of humic acid and nanocamposite superabsorbant on growth characteristic and resistance to drought stress in turf grass. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 51 (2), 387-402. (In Farsi).
  9. Boland nazar S., Naishaboori M., Asgharzadeh N. & Chaparzadeh N. (2009). The effects of arbuscular mycorhizal fungi on water relation of onion. Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 10 (4), 293-300 (in Farsi).
  10. Boomsma, C. R. & Vyn T. J. (2008). Maize drought tolerance: Potential improvements through arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Field Crops Research, 108, 14-31.
  11. Busse, M. D. & Ellis, J. R. (1984). Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus fasciculatus) influence on soybean drought in high phosphorus soil. Canadian Journal of Botany, 63, 2290-2294.
  12. Demir, S. (2004). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on some physiological growth parameters of pepper. Turkish Journal of Biology, 28, 85-90.
  13. Duffy, E. M., Hurley, E. M. & Casseles, A. C. (1999). Weaning performance of potato microplants following bacterization and micorrhization. Potato Research, 42, 521-527.
  14. Ekelof, J. (2007). Potato yield and tuber set as affected by phosphorous fertilization. M. Sc. Thesis, Netherland.
  15. Feng, G., Zhang, F. S., Tian, C. Y. & Tang, C. (2002). Improved tolerance of maize plants to salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza is related to higher accumulation of soluble sugars in roots. Mycorrhiza, 12, 185-190.
  16. Gee, G. W. & Bauder, J. W. C. (1986). Methods of soil analysis, Part1, physical and mineralogical methods. (pp. 383-411.) Second edition, American Society of Agronomy, USA.
  17. Gross, J. (1991). Pigments in vegetables. (2th ed.) Von Nostrand Rrinhold, New York.
  18. Graham, S. O., Green, N.E. & Hendrix, J.W (1996). The influence of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and tuberization of potatoes. Mycologia Journal, 68, 925-929.
  19. Gaurav, S. S., Sirohi, S. P. S., Singh, B. & Sirohi, P. (2010). Effect of mycorrhiza on growth, yield and tuber deformity in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown under water stress conditions. Progressive Agriculture Journal, 10, 31-40.
  20. Goicoechea, N., Antolín, M. C. & Sánchez-Díaz, M. (1997). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and Rhizobium on nutrient content and water relations in drought stressed alfalfa. Plant and Soil, 192, 261-268.
  21. Gonigle, T., Miller, M. & Swan, J. (1990). A new method that gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 115, 495-501.
  22. Hadi, H. & Kalantar, A. (2017) Effects of mycorhizal symbiosis, application of super absorbent gel, glycine- betain and sugar beet extract on physiological traits and seed yield of castor bean (Ricinus communis) in drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 17(3), 236-250. (In Farsi)
  23. Jahan M., Kamayestani, N. & Ranjbar, F. (2013). The feasibility of using superabsorbent moisture to reduce drought stress in corn in a low input system. Agroecology, 5 (3), 272-281.
  24. Khadem, S. A., Raroudi, M., Ghalvi, M. & Roosta M.G. (2011). Effect of drought stress and application of different ratios of manure and polymers-permeable fertilizer on yield and yield components of corn. Journal of Iranian Crop Sciences, 42 (1), 115-123. (In Farsi).
  25. Mao, R., Islam, S., Xue, X., Yang, X., Zhao, X. & Hu Y. (2011). Evaluation of a water-saving superabsorbent polymer for corn (Zea maize) production in arid regions of Northern China. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(17), 4108-4115.
  26. Menzel, C. M. (1985). Tuberization in potato at high temperature: interaction between tem-perature and irradiance. Annual Botany, 55, 35-39.
  27. Miri, Z., Asghari, J. & Panahi-Kordlagharaki, K. (2008). Effect of irrigation regimes and fertilizer composition on the yield of two potato cultivar in Fereydoon. Agricultural and Natural Research Science Technology, 46, 177-178. (In Farsi)
  28. Moazzen Ghamsari, B., Akbari, G., Zohuriyan, A. & Nikniyaee, M. G. (2009). Study the yield and growth analysis of forage corn (Zea maize) under different level of super absorbent polymer application (super water- A200) under drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 3, 1-8. (In Farsi).
  29. Monni, S. (2005). Watter saturated super- absorbent polymers used in high strength concrete. Journal of Otto- Graf, 3(16), 193-202.
  30. Mutetwa, M., Shoko, M. D & Mtaita, T. A. (2010). The effect of super phosphate and planting density on mini-tuber production from true potato seed. Second Ruforum Biennial Meeting, 20- 24 September 2010, Entebbe, Uganda. pp. 120-126.
  31. Naiji, M. & Souri, M. K. (2018). Nutritional value and mineral concentrations of sweet basil under organic compared to chemical fertilization. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Hortorum Cultus , 17(2), 167-175.
  32. Nelson, D. W. & Sommers, L. E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 3, Chemical methods. (pp. 967-1010). Soil Science Society, American Book Ser. 5. SSSA, Madison WI, USA.
  33. Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. & Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circ. 939 US Gover. Prin. Office, Washington DC. pp. 403-427.
  34. Pawlowska, T. E. & Charvat, I. (2004). Heavy metal stress and developmental patterns in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 6643-6649.
  35. Parvizi, K., Parvizi, Y. & Navaei, A. (2017). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) inoculation in different levels of water deficit on minituber production in potato. Journal of Plant Productions (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 40(3), 15-26. (In Farsi).
  36. Phillips, J. M. & Hayman, D. S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Mycology Society Journal, 55, 159-161.
  37. Rapparini, F., Liusia, J. & Penuelas, J. (2008). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on contents of Artemisia annua. Plant Biology, 10 (1), 108-122.
  38. Rashidi, N., Arji, A., Gerdekaneh, M. & Kashi, A. (2014). The effect of organic manure and water super absorbent on tuber yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tubersum, cv. Marfona). Plant Production Technology, 5 (2), 11-22. (In Farsi).
  39. Souri, M.K. & Hatamian, M. (2019). Aminochelates in plant nutrition; a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 42 (1), 67-78.
  40. Souri, M. K., Naiji, M. & Kianmehr, M. H. (2019). Nitrogen release dynamics of a slow release urea pellet and its effect on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Plant Nutrition, 42 (6), 604-614.
  41. Subramanian, K. S., Bharathi, C. A. & Jegan, O. (2008). Response of maize to mycorrhizal colonization at varying levels of zinc and phosphorus. Biology and Fertility of Soils Journal, 45, 133-144.
  42. Wright, D. P., Scholes, J. D. & Read, D. J. (1998). Effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis and biomass production of Trifolium repens Plant Cell and Environment, 21, 209-216.
  43. Yao, M. K., Tweddell, R. J. & Desilets, H. (2002). Effects of two vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of micro planted potato plantlets. Mycorrhiza, 12, 235-242.