Evaluation of genetic diversity of Anethum graveolens L. different ecotypes based ‎on morphological traits and essential oil percentage of shoot

Document Type : Full Paper


1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of ‎Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, ‎Ardabil, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Moghan, University of ‎Mohaghegh Ardabili, Parsabad, Iran


Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is one of the most important vegetables that has valuable medicinal properties, including anti-flatulence, stomach acid, and difficulty removing. Identification of dill native ecotypes is considered as one of the most important steps in the field of cultivation improvement and breed of this product. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity in different ecotypes of dill based on morphological traits, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Based on the results of analysis of variance, the studied ecotypes were significantly different in most traits. According to the comparison of mean results, the average maximum plant height (80.02 cm), stem length (69.55 cm), stem diameter (2.95 mm), shoot fresh weight (6.36 g) and shoot dry weight (1.78 g) was belonged to Urmia ecotype. The correlation results showed that there was a significant correlation between most of the studied traits. Based on factor analysis, the first factor explained 33.95% of the variance in which most of the vegetative traits included. Based on cluster analysis, 30 ecotypes were divided into four different groups and there were significant differences, especially for the shoot yield between the groups. According to the results of stepwise regression, internode spacing and leaf length were entered into the model. In general, the results of this study showed that dill ecotypes collected from different parts of Iran have a high diversity in most of the studied traits and valuable ecotypes can be found among them.


  1. Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H., Abdshah, H., Kazemian, A. & Rafiei, M. 2019. Agricultural Statistics of the crop year 2017-2018. Tehran, Ministry of Agriculture, deputy of Planning and Economics, Information and Communication Technology Center. (In Farsi).
  2. Alexandra, S. (2005). German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) population morphological and chemical diversity. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Horticulture, Budapest University, Hungary.
  3. Alipour, M., Abdollahi, H., Ghasemi, A., Abdosi, V. & Akramian, M. (2011). Evaluation of genetic diversity of some quince cultivars (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) grown in Esfehan by using morphological traits. In: Proceeding of 7th Horticaltural Sciences Congress, 5-8 Sept., Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran. (In Farsi).
  4. Argyropoulos, D. & Muller, J. (2011). Effect of convective drying methods with respect to drying rosemary leaves. Energy Conversion and Management, 49 (5), 1258-1939.
  5. Callan, W., Janson, L., Wesstcott, P., & Welty, E. (2007). Herb and oil composition of dill (Anethom graveolens ): Effects of crop maturity and plant density. Industrial Crops and Products, 25 (3), 282-287.
  6. Chandra, K., Sastry, E. V. & Singh, D. (2000). Genetic variation and character association of seed yield and its component in fenugreek. Agricultural Science, 20 (2), 93-95.
  7. Doulati Banch, H., Abdollahi, R. & Aslan Poor, M. (2013). Morpholigical study of some wild grape genotypes of Sardasht and Piranshahr regions, Iran. Seed and Plant Improvement, 3, 519-533. (In Farsi).
  8. Ebadi, R., Bihamta, M. & Bahmani, M. (2016). Assessment of genetic variation between some of the Iranian and foreign olive cultivars with using of quantitative and qualitative traits. Iranian Journal of Horticaltural Sciences, 49 (4), 845-858. (In Farsi)
  9. Eftekhari, S. A., Hassandokht, M. H., Fattahi Moghaddam, M. R. & Kashi, A. (2010). Genetic diversity of Iranian spinach landraces based on morphological traits. Iranian Journal of Horticaltural Sciences, 41 (1), 83-93. (In Farsi).
  10. Fakhraei Lahiji, M., Tabar, R., Sarseifi, M., Fathi, A., Abaduz, Gh., Haj Hasani, M., Farhadi, A., Khakizad, Gh., Azizi, Z., Samadi, B., Kiani, M., Mir Akhorli, A., Frumadi, N., Mozaffari, J. & Rafezi, R. (2016). Evaluation of genetic diversity of Iranian mulberry genotypes using morphological characteristics. Journal of Plant Production, 39 (3) 39-50. (In Farsi).
  11. Faravani, M., Razavi, A. R. & Farsi, M. (2006). Study of variation in some agronomic and anatomic characters of Nigela sativa L. landraces in Khorasan. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 22 (3), 193-197. (In Farsi).
  12. Farsi, M. & Zolali, J. (2011). Principles of plant biotechnology. Publications University of Mashhad. (In Farsi).
  13. Fathalipour, Z., Ahmadi Nabati, D., Meamari Rajabi, H., Siyahpoosh, A. & Dehkordi Seddighi, F. (2015). Determination of plant diversity using morphological characteristics and cluster analysis in dill germplasm. Journal of Plant Production, 37 (4), 69-77. (In Farsi).
  14. Fournier-Level, A., Le Cunff, L., Gomez, C., Doligez, A., Ageorges, A., Roux, C., Bertrand, Y., Souquet, J., Cheynier, V. & This, P. (2009). Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. Sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study. Genes, 183, 1127-1139.
  15. Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Moradi, M., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Alizadeh-Salteh, S. & Ghassemi, S. (2015). Changes in essential oil content of different organs of dill genotypes in response to water deficit. Azarian Journals, 5 (2), 142-146.
  16. Haji sharifi, A. & Esfahani, A. (2005). Secrets of medicinal plants. Hafez Novin Publications. (In Farsi).
  17. Hasheminejad, A. & Bahadori, A. (2015). Understanding medicinal plants. (P: 191-192.) Farhikhtegane Daneshgah. (In Farsi)
  18. Khadari, B., Breton, C. & Moutier, N. (2003). The use of molecular markers for germplasm management in a French olive collection. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 106, 521-529.
  19. Mir-Heidar, H. (2004). Herbal edjucations (7th ed.). Islamic Culture Publication. (In Farsi).
  20. Mohammadi, S. A. & Prasana, B. M. (2003). Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants, salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Science, 43, 1235-1248.
  21. Najafpour navaei, M. (1994). Regarding fenugreek. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Iran. (In Farsi).
  22. Omid Baigi, (2010). Approaches to production and processing of medicinal plants. Beh Nashr Press. (In Farsi).
  23. Omid Beigi, R. (2000). Approaches to the production and processing of medicinal plants. Tarrahan-e-Nashr Press. (In Farsi).
  24. Omid Beigi, R. (2005). Production and processing of medicinal plants. Astan Quds Razavi Press, (In Farsi).
  25. Razi, M., Amiri M. E., Darvishzadeh R., Doulati Baneh, H. & Martinez-Gomez, P. (2019) Evaluation of genetic diversity in local cultivars and genotypes of grape (Vitis vinifera) using ISSR Markers. Iranian Journal of Horticaltural Sciences, 50 (1), 197-207. (in Farsi).
  26. Salamati, M. S. & Zeinali, H. (2013). Evaluation of ganatic diversity of some Nigela sativa genotypes using agro-morphological characteristics. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 29 (3), 201-214. (In Farsi).
  27. Singh, S. K. (2003). Cluster analysis for hetrtosis in wheat (Triticum aestivum ). Indian Journal of Genetics, 63, 249-250.
  28. Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2010). Plant physiology (5th ed.). Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunders, Massachusetts. U.S.A.
  29. Zinali, H. (2003). Variation in agronomic traits cytogenetic, phytochemical in Iranian mints. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculity of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran. (In Farsi(.