Effect of light emitting diodes irradiation on morpho-physiological traits ‎of three ‎Mentha Spp.‎

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Ph. D. Candidate,, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Assitant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran ‎

3 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

4 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran ‎


Medicinal plants have long been recognized as valuable sources economically and pharmacologically. The family of Lamiaceae comprises a wide range of plants, which are commercially cultivated for their medical usage. Due to high marketability, producers continually investigate to maximize yield and productivity of these plants. Photoregulation is an effective strategy to improve productivity of plants. In the present work, we have studied the effect of different LED light treatments on morpho-physiological response of three different mint species including mint, peppermint and pennyroyal plants. The light treatments included red LED, blue LED, combined red and blue LEDs, and white emitted from fluorescent or LED lights in different growth chambers. A greenhouse environment was also considered and served as the control. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replicates in two consecutive years. The results indicated a significant difference among the light treatments regarding all morpho-physiological traits. Red and red-blue LED as well as greenhouse led to maximal fresh and dry biomass (yield), whereas white LED caused the least performance. Mean comparisons showed that that peppermint and pennyroyal were superior as compared to mint, for all studied traits. Mean comparison interaction effect of species and environment showed that peppermint and mint had the greatest fresh biomass under greenhouse and red-blue LED. In conclusion, red LED and combined red and blue LED were the best choice for production in three mint species using LEDs in vertical farming systems.  


  1. Abbaszadeh, B., Aliabadi Farahani, H., Valadabadi, S.A. & Moaveni, P. (2009). Investigation of variations of the morphological values and flowering shoot yield in different mint species at Iran. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 1(7), 109–112.
  2. Abdel-Hameed, E.S.S., Salman, M.S., Fadl, M.A., Elkhateeb, A. & El-Awady, M. A. (2018). Chemical composition of hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction of essential oils from Mentha piperita growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and their anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 34(1), 222–233.
  3. Abraham, E.M., Huang, B., Bonos, S.A. & Meyer, W.A. (2004). Evaluation of drought resistance for Texas bluegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and their hybrids. Crop Science, 44(5), 1746–1753.
  4. Asadi, A., Kafi, M., Nabati, J. & Goldani, M. (2018). Effect of different light sources in in vitro on growth, morphology and minituber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in hydroponic conditions Iranina Journal of Horticulture Science. 48(4), 933-941.(In Farsi).
  5. Astolfi, S. Marianello, C., Grego, S. & Bellarosa, R. (2012). Preliminary investigation of LED lighting as growth light for seedlings from different tree species in growth chambers. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 40(2), 31–38.
  6. Banerjee, R. & Batschauer, A. (2005). Plant blue-light receptors. Planta, 220(3), 498–502.
  7. Brazaitytė, A., Duchovskis, P., Urbonavičiūtė, A., Samuolienė, G., Jankauskienė, J., Kazėnas, V. & Breivė, K. (2009). After-effect of light-emitting diodes lighting on tomato growth and yield in greenhouse. Sodininkystė Ir Daržininkystė, 28(1), 115–126.
  8. Briggs, W.R. & Christie, J.M. (2002). Phototropins 1 and 2: Versatile plant blue-light receptors. Trends in Plant Science, 7(5), 204–210.
  9. Darko, E., Heydarizadeh, P., Schoefs, B. & Sabzalian, M.R. (2014). Photosynthesis under artificial light : the shift in primary and secondary metabolism, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society, 369,
  10. Fan, X., Xu, Z., Liu, X., Tang, C., Wang, L.W. & Han, X. (2013). Effects of light intensity on the growth and leaf development of young tomato plants grown under a combination of red and blue light. Scientia Horticulturae, 153, 50–55.
  11. Fallahi, J., Ebadi, M.T. & Ghorbani, R. (2008). The effects of salinity and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth of clary (Salvia sclarea). Environmental Stress in Crop Sciences, 1(1), 57-67. (In Farsi).
  12. Firozeh, P. & Korkan, M. (1978). The effect of gibberellic acid hormone in strawberry stolon production. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 2, 1–5. (In Farsi).
  13. Gholami Zali, A. (2018). Effects of irrigation regime and foliar-applied proline on growth, physiological characteristics and yield of fennel. PhD Thesis. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran (In Farsi).
  14. Giovannetti, M., & Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (1994). Biodiversity in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycological Research, 98(7), 705–715.
  15. He, J., Qin, L., Chong, E.L.C., Choong, T.W. & Lee, S.K. (2017). Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum grown aeroponically under different blue- and red-LEDs. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, 1–13.
  16. Heo, J.W., Kang, D.H., Bang, H.S., Hong, S.G., Chun, C.H. & Kang, K.K. (2012). Early growth, pigmentation, protein content, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of red curled lettuces grown under different lighting conditions. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 30(1), 6–12.
  17. Heydarizadeh, P. (2014).The study of mycorrhizal symbiosis and light quality effects on growth parameters and essential oil of Persian mint. PhD Thesis. Isfahan University of Technology. Isfahan, Iran (In Farsi).
  18. Hosseini, A., Zare Mehrjerdi, M., Aliniaeifard, S. & Seif, M. (2019). Photosynthetic and growth responses of green and purple basil plants under different spectral compositions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 25(3), 741–752.
  19. Johkan, M., Shoji, K., Goto, F., Hashida, S. & Yoshihara, T. (2010). Blue light-emitting diode light irradiation of seedlings improves seedling quality and growth after transplanting in red leaf lettuce. HortScience, 45(12), 1809–1814.
  20. Kaiser, E., Ouzounis, T., Giday, H., Schipper, R., Heuvelink, E. & Marcelis, L.F.M. (2019). Adding blue to red supplemental light increases biomass and yield of greenhouse-grown tomatoes, but only to an optimum. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1–11.
  21. Kim, H.H., Goins, G.D., Wheeler, R.M. & Sager, J.C. (2004). Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-light-emitting diodes. HortScience, 39(7), 1617–1622.
  22. Langhans, R. & Tibbitts, T.W. (1997). Plant growth chamber handbook. Iowa: Iowa State Univ. Press: North Central Region Research Publication.
  23. Lawrence, B. M. (2006). Mint: The Genus Mentha. CRC Press.
  24. Li, Q. & Kubota, C. (2009). Effects of supplemental light quality on growth and phytochemicals of baby leaf lettuce. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67(1), 59–64.
  25. Lichtenthaler, H.K. & Wellburn, A.R. (1983). Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11(5), 591–592.
  26. Macedo, A.F., Leal-Costa, M.V., Tavares, E.S., Lage, C.L.S. & Esquibel, M.A. (2011). The effect of light quality on leaf production and development of in vitro-cultured plants of Alternanthera brasiliana Environmental and Experimental Botany, 70(1), 43–50.
  27. Masiha, S., Esmaeilpour, B. & Shekari, F. (2006). The physiology crops. Zanjan University Press. Zanjan. (In Farsi).
  28. Massa, G.D., Emmerich, J.C., Morrow, R.C., Bourget, C.M. & Mitchell, C.A. (2007). Plant-growth lighting for space life support: A review. Gravitational and Space Research, 19(2), 19–30.
  29. Mirzahosseini, Z., Shabani, L., Sabzalian, M.R. & Dayanandan, S. (2019). Comparative physiological and proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed differential wound stress responses following the exposure to different LED light sources. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 169, 103895.
  30. Naznin, M.T., Lefsrud, M., Gravel, V., & Azad, M.O.K. (2019). Blue light added with red LEDs enhance growth characteristics, pigments content, and antioxidant capacity in lettuce, spinach, kale, basil, and sweet pepper in a controlled environment. Plants, 8(4).
  31. Ouyang, F., Mao, J., Wang, J., Zhang, S., & Li, Y. (2015). Transcriptome analysis reveals that red and blue light regulate growth and phytohormone metabolism in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst .]. PLOS ONE, 1–19.
  32. Ouzounis, T., Heuvelink, E., Ji, Y., Schouten, H., Visser, R., & Marcelis, L.F.M. (2016). Blue and red LED lighting effects on plant biomass, stomatal conductance, and metabolite content in nine tomato genotypes. Acta Horticulturae, 1134, 251–258.
  33. Pashkovskiy, P.P., Kartashov, A.V, Zlobin, I.E., Pogosyan, S.I., & Kuznetsov, V.V. (2016). Blue light alters miR167 expression and microRNA-targeted auxin response factor genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 104, 146–154.
  34. Peyvandi, M., Kazemi, L., & Majd, A. (2015). Effect of different cytokinins on micropropagation of Lavandula vera. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 28(2), 257–263. (In Farsi).
  35. Rashidi, A., Tehranifar A. & Nemati, S.H. (2017). The effect of blue and red spectrum combinations and light intensity on vegetative growth of Petunia seedling. Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science. 48(2), 443-446. (In Farsi).
  36. Ruberti, I., Sessa, G., Ciolfi, A., Possenti, M., Carabelli, M. & Morelli, G. (2012). Plant adaptation to dynamically changing environment: the shade avoidance response. Biotechnology Advances, 30(5), 1047–1058.
  37. Sabzalian, M. R., Zahedi, M., Agharokh, M., Sahba, M.R. & Schoefs, B. (2014). High performance of vegetables, flowers, and medicinal plants in a red-blue LED incubator for indoor plant production. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34(4), 879–886.
  38. Saeboe, A., Krekling, T. & Appelgren, M. (1995). Light quality affects photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of birch plantlets in vitro. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 41(2), 177–185.
  39. Savvides, A., Fanourakis, D. & Van Ieperen, W. (2012). Co-ordination of hydraulic and stomatal conductances across light qualities in cucumber leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(3), 1135–1143.
  40. Shahkaram, L., Khaleghi, A., Khadivi, A. & Solgi, M. (2020). Effects of long-day treatment using different supplemental light intensities on quantitative and qualitative traits of Rosa hybrida ‘Dolce vita. Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science. 51(2), 403– (In Farsi).
  41. Shimazaki, K., Doi, M., Assmann, S. M. & Kinoshita, T. (2007). Light regulation of stomatal movement. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 58(1), 219–247.
  42. Son, K. H., & Oh, M. M. (2013). Leaf shape, growth, and antioxidant phenolic compounds of two lettuce cultivars grown under various combinations of blue and red light-emitting diodes. Horticulture Science, 48(8), 988–995.
  43. Wang, H., Gu, M., Cui, J., Shi, K., Zhou, Y. & Yu, J. (2009). Effects of light quality on CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching, expression of Calvin cycle genes and carbohydrate accumulation in Cucumis sativus. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 96(1), 30–37.
  44. Wheeler, R.M., Mackowiak, C.L. & Sager, J.C. (1991). Soybean stem growth under high-pressure sodium with supplemental blue lighting. Agronomy Journal, 83(5), 903–906.
  45. Wu, M.C., Hou, C., Jiang, C.M., Wang, Y., Wang, C., Chen, H.H. & Chang, H.M. (2007). A novel approach of LED light radiation improves the antioxidant activity of pea seedlings. Food Chemistry, 101(4), 1753–1758.
  46. Yuan, Q., Xu, H., & Hu, Z. (1999). Two-phase culture for enhanced alkaloid synthesis and release in a new airlift reactor by Catharanthus roseus. Biotechnology Techniques, 13(2), 107–109.