Investigation effect of growth region on essential oil content and quality of ‎inflorescence spathe of some date palm varieties ‎

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Ph. D. Candidate. Faculty of Agricultural Science and Food Industries, Science and Research Branch, ‎Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Southern Agricultural and Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization ‎‎(AREEO), Kerman, Iran‎

4 Associate Professor, Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), ‎Karaj, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Food Industries, Science and Research Branch, ‎Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Inflorescences of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are encapsulated in a cover known as spathe, containing essential oil. In this study the impact of growth location (Bam and Jiroft) on the essential oil content and composition of date palm varieties (Piarom, Zahedi, Mozafati, and Hallilehie) was investigated. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results showed that effect of variety on morphological traits was more than growth location and Mozafati’ and ‘Hallilehie’ varieties showed the highest spathe length (55.06 and 48.80 cm). The highest spathe width was recorded for 'Mozafati’ and ‘Piarom’varieties (11.52 and 10.83 cm), and ‘Zahedi’ variety had the highest spathe number per palm tree (14.83). On the other hand, spathe fresh and dry weight and spathe dry matter yield in Bam (235.30 and 67.66 g/spathe, and 747.906 g/palm tree) were 38%, 48%, and 41% greater than those in Jiroft, respectively. The essential oil per palm tree in Bam (1.246 g) was 2.26 times greater than that in Jiroft (0.551 g). The ‘Mozafati’ variety had the highest spathe fresh weight, dry weight, and dry matter yield. The highest essential oil percentage (0.148-0.168%) belonged to ‘Zahedi’ and ‘Piarom’ varieties. The essential oils of all four varieties in both growth location contained five chemical compounds of 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (58.7-71.2 %), p-methylanisole (4.2-30.0 %), 2,6-dimethoxytoluene (8.6-16.8 %), n-nonanol (0.6-4.1%), and o-vanillin (0.5-2.6%). The studied varieties were divided into two groups in terms of their effectiveness from the growth location. The Hallilehie and Mozafati varieties showed higher relative stability.


  1. Abu-Reidah, I.M., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Medina, S. & Ferreres, F. (2017). Phenolic composition profiling of different edible parts and by-products of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) by using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Food Research International, 100(3), 494-500.
  2. Ahmed, I.A., Ahmed, A.W.K. & Robinson, R.K. (1995). Chemical composition of date varieties as influenced by the stage of ripening. Food Chemistry, 54(3), 305-309.
  3. Al-daihan, S. & Bhat, S. (2012). Antibacterial activities of extracts of leaf, fruit, seed and bark of Phoenix dactylifera. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(42), 10021-10025.
  4. Al-Farsi, M., Alasalvar, C., Morris, A., Baron, M. & Shahidi, F. (2005). Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolic of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoneix dactylifera) varieties grown in Oman. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(19), 7592-7599.
  5. Al Farsi, M.A. & Lee, C.Y. (2008). Nutritional and functional properties of dates: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48(10), 877-887.
  6. Ali Mohamed, A.Y. & Khamis, A.S. (2004). Mineral ion content of the seeds of six cultivars of Bahraini date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,52(21), 6522-6525.
  7. Al-Shahib, W. & Marshall, R.J. (2003). The fruit of the date palm: Its possible use as the best food for the future. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition,54(4), 247-259.
  8. Al-Taher, A.Y. (2008a). Possible anti-diarrhoeal effect of the date palm (Phoenixdactylifera) spathe aqueous extract in rats. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 9(1), 131-138.
  9. Al-Taher, A.Y. (2008b). Anticonvulsant effects of 3, 4-dimethoxy toluene, the major constituent of Phoenix dactylifera spathe in mice. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 9(2),14-29.
  10. Al-Turki, S., Shahba, M.A. & Stushnoff, C. (2010). Diversity of antioxidant properties and phenolic content of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits as affected by cultivar and location. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 8(1), 253-260.
  11. Al-Zoreky, N.S. & Al-Taher, A.Y. (2015). Antibacterial activity of spathe from Phoenix dactylifera against some food-borne pathogens. Industrial Crops and Products,65, 241-246.
  12. Amira, L., Guido, F., S.E, Behija., Manel, I., Nesrine, Z., Ali, F., Mohamed, H., Noureddine, H.A. & Lotfi, A. (2011). Chemical and aroma volatile compositions of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits at three maturation stages. Food Chemistry, 127(4), 1744-1754.
  13. Awad, M.A. (2011). Growth and compositional changes during development and ripening of early summer ‘Lonet-Mesaed’ date palm fruits. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 99(1), 40-44.
  14. Barrow, S.C. (1998). A monograph of Phoenix (Palmae: Coryphoideae). Kew Buletin,53(3), 513-575.
  15. Chao, C.C.T.& Krueger, R.R. (2007). The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera): Overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. Horticultural Science, 42(5), 1077-1082.
  16. Demirci, B., Tsikolia, M., Bernier, U.R., Agramonte, N.M., Alqasoumic, S.L., Al-Yahya, M.A., Al-Rehaily, A.J., Yusufoglud, H.S., Demirci, F., Baser, K.H., Khan, I.A. & Tabanca, N. (2013). Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito. Acta Tropica, 128(3), 557-560.
  17. Dialami, H. & Givi, J. (2017). Land suitability evaluation for date palm (cv Kabkkob) planting in Bousher province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 7(2), 25-45. (in Farsi).
  18. Duarte, A.R., Naves, R.R., Santos, S.C., Seraphin, J.C. & Ferri, P.H. (2010). Genetic and environmental influence on essential oil composition of Eugenia dysenterica. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 21(8), 1459-1467.
  19. FarboodniayJahromi, M. A., Moein, M. R., Etemadfard, H.& Jahromi, Z. (2014). Variation of spathe volatile oil composition of ten Iranian date variaties (Phoenix dactylifera). International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 4(4), 51-56.
  20. Farzane, A., Nemati, S.H. & Vahdati, N. (2011). Effects of different climatic parameters (temperature and light) on productive indexes and quantitative characteristics of four tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum ). Journal of Water and Soil,25(3), 688-697. (in Farsi)
  21. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2017). Date palm cultivation in FAO. From: palm cultivation.
  22. Hamedi, A., Mohagheghzadeh, A. & Rivaz, S. (2013). Preliminary pharmacognostic evaluation and volatile constituent analysis of spathe of Phoenix dactylifera (Tarooneh). Pharmacognosy Journal, 5(2), 83-86.
  23. Hifnawy, M.S., Mahrous, A.M.K. & Ashour, R.M.S. (2016). Phytochemical investigation of Phoenix canariensis ex Chabaud leaves and pollen grains. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6 (12), 103-109.
  24. Karasawa, K., Uzuhashi, Y., Hirota, M. & Otani, H. (2011). A matured fruit extract of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) stimulates the cellular immune system in mice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(20), 11287-11293.
  25. Kchaou, W., Abbès, F., Blecker, C., Attia, H. & Besbes, S. (2013). Effects of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera). Industrial Crops and Products, 45, 262-269.
  26. Loziene, K. & Venskutonis, P.R. (2005). Influence of environmental and genetic factors on the stability of essential oil composition of Thymus pulegioides. Biochemical Systematic Ecology, 33, 517-525.
  27. Mallaki, M. & Fateh, R. (2014). Design of a biomass power plant for burning date palm waste to cogenerate electricity and distilled water. Renewable Energy, 63, 286-291.
  28. Moshtaghi, A., Johari, & Shariati, M. (2010). Effects of Phoenix dactylifera on serum concentration of estrogen, progesterone and gonadotropins in adult female rats. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences,9(2) , 117-124. (in Farsi)
  29. Mostaan, A., Minaei, S., Tavakoli hashjin, T. & Davoodi sheikh, M.J. (2011). Physical properties and resistance to detachment of date palm male flowers (cv. Ghanami). Iranian Journal of Biosystemes Engineering (Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences), 42(1), 79-86. (in Farsi)
  30. Plotkin, M. & Balick, M. (1984). Medicinal uses of South American palms. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 10(2), 157-179.
  31. Pujari R.R., Vyawahare, N.S. & Thakurdesai, P.A. (2014). Neuroprotective and antioxidant role of Phoenix dactylifera in permanent bilateral common carotid occlusion in rats. Journal of Acute Disease, 3(2), 104-114.
  32. Rahmani A.H., Aly, S.M., Ali, H., Babiker A.Y. & Srikar, S. (2014). Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenixdactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antitumour activity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 7(3), 483-491.
  33. Rahnama, A. A.& Rahkhodaei, E. (2014). The effects of date pollinizer variety and pollination time on fruit set and yield of Medjhol date palm. Journal of Advances in Agriculture, 2(2),67-71.
  34. Shakiba, M., Kariminik, A. & Parsia, P. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of different parts of Phoenix dactylifera. International Journal of Molecular and Clinical Microbiology, 1(2), 107-111.
  35. Shariati, A., Pordeli, H. R., Khademiyan, A & Kyaie, E. (2010). Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the extracts of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits and pits on multi-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Technology and Nutrition, 4(28). 42-47. (in Farsi) .
  36. Shrinath Baliga, M., Vittaldas Baliga, B.R., Mathew Kandathil, S., Bhat, H.P. & Kumar Vayalil, P. (2011). A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Research International,44(7), 1812-1822.
  37. Singab, A.N., El-Taher, E.M.M., Elgindi, M.R. & Kassem, M.E.S. (2015). Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien DNA profiling, bioactive constituents, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 5(7), 552-558.
  38. Torahi, A. & Arzani, K. (2017). Study on the effects of dust on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) pollination and fruit set. The Plant Production (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 40(2). 63-74. (in Farsi).
  39. Vayalil, P.K. (2002). Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoneix dactylifera Arecaeae). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (3), 610-617.
  40. Zaid, A. & Arias-Jimenez, E.J. (2002). Date palm cultivation in FAO.
  41. Zaid, A. & de Wet, P.F. (2002a) Date palm cultivation in FAO.
  42. Zohary, D. & Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, the Nile Valley. Oxford University Press, Oxon, UK.