Influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and hydro-priming on some ‎physiological indices of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)‎

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, ‎Arak, Iran

2 Former M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Vali-e-Asr, Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran


Application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria metabolism and metabolic processes to increase plant efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seeds hydropriming and inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluoresense, Pseudomonas p < /em>utida) to soil as biological stimulative on some physiological traits of Melissa officinalis. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design in greenhouse conditions and laboratory of Medicinal Plants Department of Arak University. The first factor was hydropriming at different times (12, 24, 48 and 72 hours), and the second factor was two bacterial species (Pseudomonas fluoresense, Pseudomonas putida), control (without inoculation). The results showed that seed hydropriming at different times and growth promoters increased the photosynthetic pigments, phenol, flavonoids, percentage and essential oil yield. Also, hydropriming for 48 hours with Pseudomonas putida bacteria resulted in a significant increase in flavonoid content and a significant effect on phenol content during 12 hours with Pseudomonas fluoresensebacteria. According to the positive and additive effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on Melissa officinalis, the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could be recommended as an alternative to chemical fertilizers to reduce the consumption of chemical fertilizers and guaranty the production of medicinal plants, free of chemicals.


  1. Banchio, E., Bogino, P.C., Santoro, M., Torres, L., Zygadlo, J. & Giordano, W. (2010). Systemic induction of monoterpene biosynthesis in origanummajoricum by soil bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 13, 650-654.
  2. Banchio, E., Bogino, P.C., Zygadlo, J., & Giordano, W. (2008). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve growth and essential oil yield in Origanum majorana L. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36(10), 766-771.
  3. Birdane, Y. O., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., Birdane, F. M., Cemek, M., & Yavuz, H. (2007). Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Melissa officinalis L. in rodents. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire , 158(02), 75-81.
  4. Baluchi, H.R., Narg Mousse, M. & Attarzadeh, M. (2015). Effect of seed pre-treatment on some of the components of germination and seedling growth of safflower under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 2 (4), 1-9. (in Farsi)
  5. del Rosario Cappellari, L., Santoro, M. V., Nievas, F., Giordano, W. & Banchio, E. (2013). Increase of secondary metabolite content in marigold by inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Applied Soil Ecology, 70, 16-22.
  6. Cosge B., Ipek A. & Gurbuz, B. (2009). GC/MS analysis of herbage essential oil from lemon balms (Melissa officinalis L.) grown in Turkey. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 3(2), 136-139.
  7. Das, K., Dang, R. & Shivananda, T.N. (2008). Influence of bio-fertilizers on the availability of nutrients (N, P and K) in soil in relation to growth and yield of stevia rebaudiana grown in south india. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 1 (1), 20-4.
  8. Demir, I. & Oztakat, C. (2003). Effect of salt priming on germination and seedling growth at low temperatures in watermelon seeds during development. Seed Science and Technology, 31(3), 765- 770.
  9. Emamghoreishi, M. & Talebianpour, M.S. (2009). Antidepressant effect of melissa officinalis in the forced swimming test. Daru, 17(1), 42-7.
  10. Ebrahimi Hariry, R. (2011). Anticonvulsant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of melissa officinalis on pentylenetetrazole (ptz) model of convulsion in mice. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(16), 3803-9.
  11. Erturk, Y., Cakmakci, R., Duyar, O. & Turan, M. (2011). The effects of plant growth promoting rhizibacteria on vegetative growth and leaf nutrient contents of hazelnut seedling (Turkish hazelnut CV. Tombul and Sivir). International Journal of Soil Science, 6 (3), 188-198.
  12. Fukumoto, L.R. & Mazza, G. (2000). Assessing antioxidant and prooxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, 48(8), 3597-604.
  13. Ferrat, I.L. & Lova, C.J. (1999). Relation between relative water content, nitrogen pools and growth
    of phaseolus vulgaris l. and Phaseolusacutifolius, a. gray during water deficit. Crop Science, 39, 467-74.
  14. Guginski, G., Luiz, A.P., Silva, M.D., Massaro, M., Martins, D.F., Chaves, J., Mattos, R.W., Silveira, D., Ferreira, V.M.M., Calixto, J.B. & Santos, A.R.S. (2009). Mechanisms involved in the antinociceptioncaused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice. Pharmaco Biochem& Behavior, 93, 10-16.
  15. Glick, B. R. (1995). The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 41(2), 109-117.
  16. Ghorbanpour, M. & Hatami, M. (2014). Biopriming of salvia officinalis seed with growth promoting rhizobacteria affects invigoration and germination indices. Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 8(22), 29-36.
  17. Hang, C.C., Yang, M.H., Wen, H.M. & Chern, J.C. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in proplis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 10, 178-182.
  18. Hemashenpagam, N. & Selvaraj, T. (2011). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's) on medicinal plant Solanum viarum seedlings. Journal of Environmental Biology, 32(5), 579.
  19. Karlidag, H., Yildirim, E. & Turan, M. (2009). Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry. Science Agriculture, 66 (2), 180-7.
  20. Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophyll and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology, 148, 350-382.
  21. Omidi, H.A., Sorushzadeh, A., Salehi, A. & Ghezeli, F. (2005). Evaluation of priming pretreatments on germination rapeseed. Agricultural Science and Technology, 19(2), 1-10. (in Farsi)
  22. Omid Beigi, R. (1997). Production and processing of medicinal plants. (Vol. 3). Astan Quds Razavi Publication. 438 p. (in Farsi)
  23. Naiji, M. & Souri, M.K. (2018). Nutritional value and mineral concentrations of sweet basil under organic compared to chemical fertilization. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum: Hortorum Cultus (Ogrodnictwo), 17(2), 167-175.
  24. Naderi, m.r. (2012). The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on phytoremediation of lead by sunflower in a pb-bearing soil for long term. M.Sc. Thesis in Agroecology, Shahrekord University, 119 pp. (in Farsi)
  25. Parvazi Shandi, S., Pazoki, A. R., Asgharzadeh, A., Azadi, A. & Paknejad, F. (2013). Effect of irrigation interval, humic acid and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on physiological characteristics of Kavir cultivar wheat in. Crop Physiology Journal, 5(18), 19-33.
  26. Rouzbeh, R., Daneshian, J. & Farahani, H. A. (2009). Super nitro plus influence on yield and yield components of two wheat cultivars under NPK fertilizer application. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, 1(8), 293-297. (in Farsi)
  27. Shady, M.A., Ibrahim, I. & Afify, A.H. (1984). Mobilization of elements and their effects on certain plant growth characteristics as influenced by some silicate bacteria. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 27(1-7), 17-30.
  28. Sheikhalipour, M., Bolandndnazar, S.A., Sarikhani M.R & Panahandeh, J. (2019).  Effect of application of biofertilizers on yield, quality and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 50 (3), 621-632. (in Farsi).
  29. Singleton, V. L. & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.
  30. Selvaraj, T., Rajeshkumar, S., Nisha, M. C., Wondimu, L. & Tesso, M. (2008). Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's) on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, 2(3), 516-525.
  31. Souri, M.K., Arab, M.S., Tohidloo, G. & Kashi, A. (2016). Effects of some priming treatments on germination quality of artishock (Cynara scolymus). Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 5(2), 85-94. (in Farsi)
  32. Tsavkelova, E.A., Cherdyntseva, T.A. & Netrusoe, A.I. (2005). Auxin production by bacteria associated with orchod roots. Microbiology, 74, 233-273.
  33. Wu, S.C., Cao, Z.H., Li, Z.G. & Cheung, K.C. (2005). Effect of biofertilizer containing n-fixer, pand k solubilizers and am fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma, 125, 155-166.
  34. Yasari, E., Patwardhan, A.M., Ghole, V.S., Ghasemi Chapi, O. & Asgarzadeh, A. (2007). Biofertilizers impact on canola (Brassica napus L.) seed yield and quality. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environment Science, 9(3), 701-707.
  35. Yousefzadeh, S., Modarres-Sanavy, S.A., Sefidkon, F. & Ghiasy Oskuee, M. (2016). Effect of biofertilizer, azocompost and nitrogen on oil yield and essential oil content of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46 (4), 601-611. (in Farsi)