Investigation on quality changes of damask rose essential oil during different ‎phenology stages in Oroumieh region

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University ‎of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, ‎Ardabil, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran


Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) is one of the most valuable plant species from genus Rosa. Its essential oil is using in many industries, such as cosmetics, sanitary, and pharmaceutical. In present study, the chemical composition of damask rose essential oil was evaluated during different flower development stages: (1- flower bud 2- partially open flower 3- full open flower and 4- senescent flower) in Oroumieh region, during 2018. The damask rose essential oil was collected by distillation with water via Clevenger apparatus. The lowest and highest sap cell pH levels were observed at flower bud and senescent flower stages, respectively. Analysis of the chemical compositions of the essential oil was done by GC-MS technique and the most abundant compounds were nonadecane, heneicosane, citronellol, geraniol, and Z-5-nenadencene. The highest ratio of citronellol /geraniol was produced at the full open flower stage. The highest amount of a-pinene was produced in the flower bud stage and b-myrcene was produced solely in the flower bud stage. The highest amount of 2-phenyl ethanol alcohol, as well as eugenol and geranial compounds were exclusively produced at the full open flower stage; while docosane alkane was not produced at full open flower stage. The results manifested that due to the objective of using essential oils in cosmetic, health or pharmaceutical, different flower development stages can be selected for extraction.


  1. Anderson, N. O. (2006). Flower breeding and genetics: issues, challenges and opportunities for the 21st century. Springer Science & Business Media.
  2. Anonymous, (2003). Oil of rose (Rosa x damascena Mill.). International standards for business, government and society. Available http//
  3. Babu, K. G. D., Singh, B., Joshi, V. P. & Singh, V. (2002). Essential oil composition of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) distilled under different pressures and temperatures. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17(2), 136-140.
  4. Baydar, H. (2006). Oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivation and rose oil industry in Turkey. Euro Cosmetics, 14(6), 13-17.
  5. Baydar, H., Kazaz, S. & Erbas, S. (2013). Mutation breeding of oil rose. Süleyman Demirel University. Journal of Natural and Applied Science, 17(2), 39-43.
  6. Baydar, H., Schulz, H., Krüger, H., Erbas, S. & Kineci, S. (2008). Influences of fermentation time, hydro-distillation time and fractions on essential oil composition of Damask Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 11(3), 224-232.
  7. Boskabadi, M. H., Shafei, M.N., Saberi, Z. & Amini, S. (2011). Pharmacological effects of Rosa damascena. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 14(4), 295-307. (in Farsi)
  8. Cho, K. S., Lim, Y., Lee, K., Lee, J., Lee, J. H. & Lee, I. S. (2017). Terpenes from forests and human health. Toxicological Research, 33(2), 97-106.
  9. Dafny-Yelin, M., Guterman, I., Menda, N., Ovadis, M., Shalit, M., Pichersky, E., Zamir, D., Lewinsohn, E., Adam, Z. & Weiss, D. (2005). Flower proteome: changes in protein spectrum during the advanced stages of rose petal development. Planta, 222(1), 37-46.
  10. Davazdah-Emami, S. (2016). Rosa damascena. Organizaion of Agriculture-Jahad. Isfahan Province. (in Farsi)
  11. Davoodi, I., Rahimi, R., Abdollahi, M., Farzaei, F., Farzaei, M. H., Memariani, Z. & Najafi, F. (2017). Promising effect of Rosa damascena extract on high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 7(4), 508-514.
  12. Dobreva, A., Kovatcheva, N., Astatkie, T. & Zheljazkov, V. D. (2011). Improvement of essential oil yield of oil-bearing (Rosa damascena Mill.) due to surfactant and maceration. Industrial Crops and Products, 34(3), 1649-1651.
  13. Erbas, S., Alagoz, M. & Baydar, H. (2015).A research on flower morphology and pollen viability of oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Agriculture Journal, 10(2), 40-50. (in Turkish)
  14. Erbas, S. & Baydar, H. (2016). Variation in scent compounds of oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) produced by headspace solid phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and solvent extraction. Records of Natural Products, 10(5), 555-565.
  15. Gorji-Chakespari, A., Nikbakht, A. M., Sefidkon, F., Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M. & Valero, E. L. (2017). Classification of essential oil composition in Rosa damascena Mill. genotypes using an electronic nose. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 4, 27-34.
  16. Gunes, E. (2005). Turkey rose oil production and marketing: a review on problem and opportunities. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(10), 1871-1875.
  17. Gupta, N., Sharma, S. K., Rana, J. C. & Chauhan, R. S. (2011). Expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes vis-à-vis rutin content variation in different growth stages of Fagopyrum species. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168(17), 2117-2123.
  18. Kazaz, S., Baydar, H. & Erbas, S. (2009). Variations in chemical compositions. Czech Journal of Food Science, 27(3), 178-184.
  19. Koksall, N., Aslancan, H., Sadighazadi, S. & Kafkas, E. (2015). Chemical investigation on Rose damascena Mill. volatiles; effects of storage and drying conditions. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14(1), 105-114.
  20. Kuiper, D., van Reenen, H. S. & Ribot, S. A. (1996). Characterisation of flower bud opening in roses; a comparison of Madelon and Sonia roses. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 9(1), 75-86.
  21. Nam, S. Y., Chung, C., Seo, J. H., Rah, S. Y., Kim, H. M. & Jeong, H. J. (2014). The therapeutic efficacy of α-pinene in an experimental mouse model of allergic rhinitis. International Immunopharmacology, 23(1), 273-282.
  22. Nazzaro, F., Fratianni, F., Coppola, R. & Feo, V. De. (2017). Essential oils and antifungal activity. Pharmaceuticals, 10(4), 86-106.
  23. Nedeltcheva-Antonova, D., Stoicheva, P. & Antonov, L. (2017). Chemical profiling of Bulgarian rose absolute (Rosa damascena Mill.) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and trimethylsilyl derivatives. Industrial Crops and Products, 108, 36-43.
  24. Omidi, M., Khandan-Mirkohi, A., Kafi, M. & Zamani, Z. (2020). Effect of salinity stress on some morphology and physiology indices of damask rose kashan genotype. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 51(1), 1-17. (in Farsi)
  25. Pellati, F., Orlandini, G., van Leeuwen, K. A., Anesin, G., Bertelli, D., Paolini, M., Benvenuti, S. & Camin, F. (2013). Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection and elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for characterizing and detecting the authenticity of commercial essential oils of Rosa damascena Mill. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 27(5), 591-602.
  26. Reid, M.S. (2003). Flower development: from bud to bloom, in: Proceddings of VIII International Symposium on Postharvest Physiology of Ornamental Plants, 669, 105-110.
  27. Sakai, M., Hirata, H., Sayama, H., Sekiguchi, K., Itano, H., Asai, T., Dohra, H., Hara, M. & Watanabe, N. (2007). Production of 2-phenylethanol in roses as the dominant floral scent compound from L-phenylalanine by two key enzymes, a PLP-dependent decarboxylase and a phenylacetaldehyde reductase. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 71, 2408-2419.
  28. Sangwan, N. S., Farooqi, A. H. A., Shabih, F. & Sangwan, R. S. (2001). Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regulation, 34(1), 3-21.
  29. Schmitzer, V., Mikulic-Petkovsek, M. & Stampar, F. (2013). Sepal phenolic profile during Helleborus niger flower development. Journal of Plant Physiology, 170(16), 1407-1415.
  30. Schmitzer, V., Veberic, R., Osterc, G. & Stampar, F. 2010. Color and phenolic content changes during flower development in groundcover rose. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 135(3), 195-202.
  31. Sefidkon, F., Akbari, Z., Assareh, M. H. & Bakhshi-Khaniki, G. (2006). Comparison of quantity and quality of aromatic compounds from Rosa damascena Mill. by different extraction methods. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 22(4), 351-365. (in Farsi)
  32. Sood, S. & Nagar, P.K. (2003). Changes in abscisic acid and phenols during flower development in two diverse species of rose. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 25(4), 411-416.
  33. Sood, S., Vyas, D. & Nagar, P. K. (2006). Physiological and biochemical studies during flower development in two rose species. Scientia Horticulturae, 108(4), 390-396.
  34. Staikov, V. & Kalaijiev, I. (1980). Study of oil roses (Rosa damascena Mill.) originated from India, Morocco, Iran and Bulgaria. Plant Science, 17(4), 58-68.
  35. Tanaka, Y., Katsumoto, Y., Brugliera, F. & Mason, J. (2005). Genetic engineering in floriculture. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 80(1), 1-24.
  36. Ucar, Y., Kazaz, S., Eraslan, F. & Baydar, H. (2017). Effects of different irrigation water and nitrogen levels on the water use, rose flower yield and oil yield of Rosa damascena. Agricultural Water Management, 182, 94-102.
  37. Verma, R. S., Padalia, R. C., Chauhan, A., Singh, A. & Yadav, A. K. (2011). Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills. Natural Product Research, 25(17), 1577-1584.
  38. Watanabe, S., Hayashi, K., Yagi, K., ASAI, T., Mactavish, H., Picone, J., Turnbull, C. & Watanabe, N. (2002). Biogenesis of 2-phenylethanol in rose Flowers: Incorporation of [2H8] L-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethanol and its β-D-glucopyranoside during the flower opening of Rosa 'Huh-Jun' and Rosa damascena MiIl. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 66(5), 943-947.
  39. Yassa, N., Masoomi, F., Rohani S. E. R. & Hadjiakhoondi, A. (2009). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extract and essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran population of Guilan. Daru, 17(3), 175-180.
  40. Yousefi, B. (2019). Evaluation of genetic diversity of flower yield and its components in 12 local genotypes of Rosa damascena Mill. in Kurdistan province. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science. 50(3), 723-732. (in Farsi)
  41. Zeinali, H., Tabaei-Aghdaei, S. R. & Arzani, A. (2010). A study of morphological variations and their relationship with flower yield and yield components in Rosa damascena. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 11(4), 439-448.