Effect of salicylic acid application on quantitative and qualitative features of ‎Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. under water deficit stress condition

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, ‎Iran

2 Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and salicylic acid application on morphological and physiological characteristic of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. a factorial experiment based on a complete randomized block design with four water deficit stress levels (100%, 75%, 50% and 30% FC) and three levels of salicylic acid (0, 0.5 and 1 mM) in three replications was performed in greenhouse condition. Water deficit stress decreased plant, leaf and stem dry weight, leaf area, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, carotenoids content and essential oil yield, while these traits increased by application of SA. Total phenol content was increased by water deficit stress and SA application. The highest level of plant (18.2g), leaf (6.6g), and stem (8g) dry weight were observed in 100% FC with 0.5 mM SA. Essential oil yield was decreased by water deficit stress and the highest level of this character was obtained in 100% FC with 0.5 mM SA application. According to the obtained results, Z. clinopodioides needs to irrigate at field capacity along with  0.5 mM SA in order to reach to the highest growth and chemical yields.


  1. Ahmad, A., Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q. & Ahmad, I. (2001). Photosynthetic efficiency of plants of Brassica juncea treated with chlorosubstituted auxins. Photosynthetica, 39, 565-568.
  2. Albouchi, A., Béjaoui, Z. & El Aouni, MH. (2003). Influence d’un stress hydrique modéré ou severe sur la croissance de jeunes plants de Casuarina Glauca Sieb. Science et Changements Planetaires, Sechersesse, 3, 137-142.
  3. Amani, R. (2017). Blue waters of my lands Nov/19 /2017. http://wcm.moe.gov.ir.
  4. Arazmjo, A., Heidari, M., Ghanbari, A., Siahsar, B. & Ahmadian, A. (2010). Effects of three types of fertilizers on essential oil, photosynthetic pigments. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 3(1), 23-33. (in Farsi)
  5. Arvin, M. J., Beidshki A., Kramt, B. & Maghsodi, K. (2011). The study salicylic acid (SA) role in contrast with drought stress by affecting on morphological and physiological parameters in garlic plant. In: Proceeding of 7th Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 4-7 September Isfahan Industrial University, Iran. (in Farsi).
  6. Ayaz, F. A., Kadioglu, A. & Turgut, R. (2000). Water stress effects on the content of low molecular weight carbohydrates and phenolic acids in Ctenanthe setosa (Rosc.) Eichler. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80, 373-378.
  7. Azhar, N., Hussain, B., Ashraf, Y.M. & Abbasi, K.Y. (2011). Water stress mediated changes in growth, physiology and secondary metabolites of desi ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 15-19.
  8. Azimi, R., Heshmati, G. A. & Kia Kianian, M. (2018). Effects of drought stress and mycorrhiza on viability and vegetative growth characteristics of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. Journal of Rangeland Science, 8(3), 253-263.
  9. Babaee, K., Amini Dehaghi, M., Modares Sanavi, S.A.M. & Jabbari, R. (2010). Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26(2), 240-251. (in Farsi).
  10. Bakhshi, D. & Arakawa, O. (2006). Induction of phenolic compounds biosynthesis with light irradiation in the tesh of red and yellow apples. Journal of Applied Horticulture, 8(2), 101-104.
  11. Bartels, D. & Sunkar, R. (2005). Drought and salt tolerance in plants. Critical Review in Plant Science, 24, 23-58.
  12. Belkhadi, A., Hediji, H., Abbes, Z., Nouairi, I., Barhoumi, Z., Zarrouk, M., Chaibi, W. & Djebali, W. (2010). Effects of exogenous salicylic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid content in Linum usitatissimum L. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(5), 1004-1011.
  13. Borsani, O., Valpuesta, V. & Botella, A. M. (2001). Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidative damage generated by NaCl and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Physiology, 126, 1024-1030.
  14. Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.
  15. Chalchat, J. C., Garry, R. P. & Lamy, J. (1994). Influence of harvest time on yield and composition of Artemisia annua oil produced in France. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(3), 261-268.
  16. Chachoyan, A.A. & Oganesyan, G.B. (1991). Antitumor activity of some spices of the family Lamiaceae. Rastitelnye Resursy, 32(4), 59-64.
  17. Chatterjee, S. K. (2002). Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants in India, a commercial approach. Acta Horticulturea 576, 191-202.
  18. Costa, M., Civell, P. M., Chaves, A. R. & Martinez, G. A. (2005). Effects of ethephon and 6-benzylaminopurine on chlorophyll degrading enzymes and a peroxidase- linked chlorophyll bleaching during post- harvest senescence of modulated protein phosphatase. Plant Science, 264, 1448-1452.
  19. Dat, J. F., Foyer, C. H. & Scott, I. M. (1998). Changes in salicylic acid and antioxidants during induced thermos tolerance in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiology, 118, 1455- 1461.
  20. De Abreu, I.N. & Mazzafera, P. (2005). Effect of water and temperature stress on the content of active constituents of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy. Plant Physiology Biochemistry, 43, 241-248.
  21. Dong, J., Wan, G. & Liang, Z. (2010). Accumulation of salicylic acid-induced phenolic compounds and raised activities of secondary metabolic and antioxidative enzyme in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell culture. Biotechnology, 148(2-3), 99-104.
  22. Dixon, R.A. & Paiva, N.L. (1995). Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell, 7, 1085-1097.
  23. Faraji- mehmani, A., Esmaielpour, B., Sefikon, F. & Khorramdel, S. (2016).  Effects of foliar spraying with salicylic acid and putrescine on growth characteristics and yield of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 14(1),73-85. (in Farsi).
  24. Fatma, A. E. & Gharib, L. (2007). Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, metabolic activities and oil content of basil and majoram. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 4, 485-492.
  25. Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Rahmani Samani, M., Hashemi, M. & Zeinali, H. (2014). Salicylic acid affects growth, essential oil and chemical compositions of thyme (Thymus daenensis Celak.) under reduced irrigation. Plant Growth Regulation, 72, 289-301.
  26. Gorgini Shabankareh, H., Saedi, F., Sabouri, F. & Asgharipour, M. R. (2015). Effect of drought stress on growth indices, relative water content and essential oil percentage in pepper mint (Mentha piperita L.). In proceeding of 1st National Conference on Herbs and Herbal Medicine. May 28, Iran. (in Farsi)
  27. Grace, S. & Smirnoff, N. (2005). Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants. Phenolics as antioxidants, Blackwell,Oxford, pp. 141-168.
  28. Gray, D. E., Pallardy, S. G., Garrett, H. E., & Rottinghaus, G. E. (2003). Acute drought stress and plant age effects on alkamide and phenolic acid content in purple coneflower roots. Planta Medica69(01), 50-55.
  29. Gutierrez-Coronado, M., Trejo, C.L. & Larque-Saavedra, A. (1998). Effects of salicylic acid on the growth of roots and shoots in soybean. Plant Physiology Biochemistry, 36, 563-565.
  30. Hassani, A., Omidbaigi, R. & Heidari Sharif Abad, H. (2004). Study of some drought resistance indices in basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Agricultural Science Natural Resources, 10, 65-74. (in Farsi).
  31. Hassani, A. (2006). Effect of water deficit stress on growth, yield and essential oil content of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 22(3), 256-261.
    (in Farsi)
  32. Hayat, S. & Ahmad, A. (2007). Salicylic acid - A Plant hormone. Springer 410 pp.
  33. Horwath, B., Renee, J. G., Michael Keith, D. & Monique, S. J. (2008). Chemical characterization of wild populations of Thymus from different climatic regions in southeast Spain. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology, 36, 117-133.
  34. Hussein, M.M., Balbaa, L.K. & Gaballah, M.S. (2007). Salicylic acid and salinity effects on growth of maize plants. Research Journal of Agricultural Biological Science, 3, 321-328.
  35. Iturbe-ormaetxe, I., Escuredo, P.R., Arrese-Igor, C. & Becana, M. (1998). Oxidative damage in pea plant exposed to water deficit or paraquat. Journal of Plant Physiology, 116, 173-181.
  36. Rahimi, A., Jahanbin, S., Salehi, A., & Farajee, H. (2018). The effect of mycorrhiza on yield, oil content and water use efficiency of medicinal plant of borage (Borago officinails L.) under water stress. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science49(2), 407-415. (in Farsi)
  37. Jamzad, Z. (2009). Thymus and Saureja species of Iran. Publishing of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, 171 pp. (in Farsi)
  38. Jiang, Y. & Huang, N. (2001). Drough and heat stress injury to two cool-season turf grasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidase. Crop Science, 41, 436-442.
  39. Kafi, M., Borzuyi, A., Salehi, M., Kmandi, A., Masumi, A. & Nabati, J. (2009). Physiology of environmental stresses in plants. Mashhad University Press. (in Farsi)
  40. Keshavarz, H., Modarres Sanavi, S. A. M., Zarin Kamr, F., Dolatabadian, A., Panahi, M. & Sadaj Asilan, K. (2012). Evolution effect salicylic acid foliar on same traits biochemical two Brasica napus L. under cool stress. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 42, 723-734. (in Farsi)
  41. Koochaki, A., Nassiri-Mahallati, M. & Azizi, G. (2005). The effects of water stress and defoliation on some of quantitative traits of Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Thymus vulgaris and Teucrium polium. Iranian Crop Research, 2(1), 89-106. (in Farsi)
  42. Lawlor, D. W. & Cornic, G. (2002). Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell Environment, 25, 275-294.
  43. Lebaschy, M.H. & Sharifi Ashoorabadi, A. (2004). Growth indices of some medicinal plant under different water stresses. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research, 20(3), 249-261. (in Farsi)
  44. Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Buschmann, C. (2001). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Measurement and characterization by UV‐VIS spectroscopy. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry1(1), F4-3.
  45. Mizanzadeh, H. & Imam, Y. (2010). Investigation of indices of leaf area, height, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance of four species of wheat under the drought tension. Ecophysiology of Agricultural Plants, 2(2), 111-121. (in Farsi)
  46. Mohamadnia, R., Nejad, A. R., & Bahraminejad, S. (2018). Ocimum basilicum L. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science49(1), 37-45. (in Farsi)
  47. Moradi Marjaneh, E, & Goldani, M. (2011). Evaluation of different levels of salicylic acid on some indices of numerical index of (Calendula officinalis L.) under water deficit condition. Journal of Environmental Stress in Applied Sciences, 4(1), 33-45. (in Farsi)
  48. Mozaffarian, V. (2015). Medicinal and aromatic plants of Iran. Farhange Moaser Press. 1444 p. (in Farsi)
  49. Naderi, S., Khajeh, H. & Ahmadi, H. (2015) The effect of salicylic acid on some physiological traits of (Coriandurum sativum L.). Journal of Eco-physiology of Agricultural Plants, 7(4), 287-305. (in Farsi).
  50. Nooshkam, A., Majnoun hoseini, N., Hadian, J., Jahansooz, M. R., Khavazi, K., Salehnia, A. & Hedayatpour, S. (2016). The effect of irrigation intervals on quantitative and qualitative yields of two savory species (Satureja khuzestanica and S. rechingeri). Journal of Plant Productions (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 39, 11-20. (in Farsi)
  51. Omidbaigi, R., Hassani, A. & Sefidkon, F. (2003). Essential oil content and composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) at different irrigation regimes. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 6, 104-108.
  52. Omidbaigi, R. (2005). Production and processing of medicinal plants. Second Volume, Astan Quds Razavi Press. 242-244. (in Farsi)
  53. Ort, D. R. (2001). When there is too much light. Plant Physiology, 125, 29-32.
  54. Pierre, C. S., Petersona, J., Rossa, A., Ohma, J., Verhoerena, M., Larsona, M. & Hoefera, B. (2008). White wheat grain quality changes with genotype, nitrogen fertilization, and water stress. Agronomy Science, 100, 414-420.
  55. Priyanka, S. & Malik, Z. A. (2017). Water deficit-induced oxidative stress affects artemisinin content and expression of proline metabolic genes in Artemisia annua L. FEBS Open Bio, 7, 367-381.
  56. Pirzad, A., Aliari, H., Shakiba, M., Salmasi, S. & Mohammadi, S. A. (2008). Effects of irrigation and plant density on water use efficiency on essential oil production in German chamomile. Journal of Agricultural Science, 18(2), 49-58. (in Farsi)
  57. Popova, L., Ananieva, V., Hristova, V., Christov, K., Geovgieva, K., Alexieva, V. & Stoinova, Z. (2003). Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonateinduced protection on photosynthesis to paraquat oxidative stress. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology (Special issue). 133-152.
  58. Ramakrishna, A., & Ravishankar, G. A. (2011). Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 6, 1720-1731.
  59. Rabiei, V. (2003). Physiological and morphological reactions of some grape varieties to drought stress. Ph.D. Thesis in Horticulture. University of Tehran, 125 p. (in Farsi).
  60. Rasam, G. H., Dadkhah, A. & Khoshnod-yazdy, A. (2014). Assessing the impact of water shortages on morphological and physiological characteristics of medicinal plants hyssop. Journal of Agriculture,10,1-12.
  61. Raskin, K. (1992). Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annual review plant physiology. Plant Molecular Biology, 43, 439-463.
  62. Sairam, R. K., Chandrasekhar, V. & Srivastava, G. C. (2001). Comparison of hexaploid and tetraploid wheat cultivars in their responses to water stress. Biologia Plantarum, 44(1), 89-94.
  63. Sajjadi, S. E., Gasemi dehcordi, N. & Baluchi, M. (2003). Study on the essential oils of Zizphira clinopodes Lam. Research and Development, 16(1), 97-100. (in Farsi)
  64. Schutz, M. & Fangmeir, E. (2001). Growth and yield responses of spring wheat (triticum aestivum L. cv. Minaret) to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution, 114, 187-194.
  65. Shankar, N. K., Khan, S. R. & Srivastava, H. S. (2001). The response of nitrate reductase activity and nitrate assimilation in mize roots to growth regulators at acidic pH. Bio Plant, 44, 599-601.
  66. Shao, H. B., Chu, L. Y., Jaleel, C. A. & Zhao, C. X. (2008). Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Current Research in Biologies, 331(3), 215-225.
  67. Singleton, V. L. & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphor molybdic- phospho tungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.
  68. Si-o-semardeh, A. (2003). Physiological of growth and yield of wheat cultivar related to drought resistance ATP synthesis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tehran, Iran.(in Farsi)
  69. Smirnoff, N. (1993). The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. New Phytology, 125, 27-58.
  70. Sreenivasulu, N., Grimm, B., Wobus, U. & Weschke, W. (2000). Differential response of antioxidant compounds to salinity stress in salttolerant and salt sensitive seedlings of foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Physiology Plant, 109, 435-442.
  71. Sultana, N., Ikeda, T. & Itoh, R., (1999). Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 42(3), 211-220.
  72. Tian, S., Shi, Y., Zhou, X., Ge, L. & Upur, H. (2011). Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 7(25), 65-68.
  73. Turner, N. C. (1981). Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water status. Plant and Soil, 58(1-3), 339-366.
  74. Viera, H. J., Bergamaschi, H., Angelocci, L. R. & Libardi, P.L. (1991). Performance of two bean cultivars under two water availability regimes. II. Stomata resistance to vapour diffusion, transpiration flux density and water potential in the plant (in Portugal). Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 9, 1035-1040.
  75. Wise, R. R. & Naylor, A.W. (1989). Chillingenhanced peoxidative photo-oxdation the destruction of lipids during chilling injury to photosynthesis and ultrasracture. Plant Physiology, 83, 278-282.
  76. Werker, E., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Dudai, N. & Katzir, I. (1993). Glandular hairs and essential oil in developing leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae). Annals of Botany, 71, 43-50.
  77. Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Javanshir, A., Omidbaigi, R., Alyari, H. & Ghassemi-Golezani, K. (2001). Effects of water supply and sowing date on performance and essential oil production of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Acta Agronomica Hungaricae, 49(1), 75-81.