Effect of self- pollination on Quantitative and qualitative traits in Gladiolus ‎grandiflorus cv Amsterdam

Document Type : Full Paper


Assistant Professor, Ornamental Plants Research Center (OPRC), Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, ‎Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mahallat, Iran


Gladiolus, is one of the most important cut flowers and known as the Queen of bulbous flower. The aim of this research was to produce superior genotypes through self- pollination of Gladiolus grandiflorus cv. Amsterdam, the experimental was randomized complete block design (RCBD). This research was conducted in Ornamental Plants Research Center in 2015 to 2018 (OPRC). Analysis of variance among genotypes showed that significant differences in all traits were conducted (except for cormlet weight). The oprc46 genotype was superior in the width and length of floret and diameter of bud. The oprc45 genotype was superior in terms of vase life, weight of corm, yield of corm and cormlet per plant. The highest number of cormlet (64n) was produced by oprc415 genotypes. The highest number of traits in parent was obtained for number of florets, length of peduncle, diameter of stem, length of spike and diameter of cormlet. Correlation coefficients show that the most positive and significant correlation between the yield of corm and cormlet per plant and weight of corm (r=+0.98). The results showed that the flower color in genotypes tendency to white. In most genotypes and parents, arrangement of flowers was one row and shape in front view was star-shaped. The results of grouping showed that classified into three groups and the parent group was separated another genotype. The results showed that major of the diversity in the traits was due to genetic factors and the effect of the environment on these traits was less.


  1. Anderson, N.O. (2007). Flower Breeding and Genetics. The Netherlands, Springer, pp. 665-691.
  2. Anonymous. (2017). Stats of prnamental plants in country. Office of flowers and ornamental plants, medicinal and edible mushrooms, Ministry of Jihade-e-Agriculture. (in Farsi)
  3. Azimi, M.H. & Banijamali, S.M. (2019). Introducing superior cultivars of gladiolus by important quality and quantity indexes. Journal of Ornamental Plants, 9(1), 33-40.
  4. Azimi, M.H. (2017). Introduction to genetic breeding and the creation of new varieties of gladiolus. Ornamental Plants Research Center (OPRC), Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), N: 52639, pp. 22. (in Farsi)
  5. Azimi, M.H. (2019). Progeny test of crosses among different cultivars of gladiolus. Journal of Plant Productions (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 41(4), 29-44. (in Farsi)
  6. Azimi, M.H., Jozghasemi, S. & Barba-Gonzalez, R. (2018). Multivariate analysis of morphological characteristics in Iris germanica hybrids. Euphytica, 214, 161.
  7. Azimi, M.H., Jozghasemi, S. & Edrisi, B. (2017). Diversity induction in flower color of Iris germanica through hybridization. Journal of Iranian Society for Ornamental Plants, 92, 22-91. (in Farsi)
  8. Azimi, M.H., Sadeghian, S.Y., Razaviahari, V., Khazaei, F. & Fathi-hafashjani, A. (2012). Genetic variation of Iranian Iris species using morphological characteristics and RAPD markers. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 2 (9), 875-889.
  9. Balaram, M.V. & Janakiram, T. (2009). Correlation and path co-efficient analysis in gladiolus. Journal of Ornamental and Horticultural Plants, 12(1), 22-29.
  10. Berdahl, J.D. & Ray, I.M. (2004). Comparison of S1 with open-pollination progenies in selection for yield in crested wheatgrass. Crop Science, 44, 768-771.
  11. Bhagaur, H.S. (1989). Studies of variability and genetic component of flower in exotic varieties of gladiolus. Ph.D. Thesis, Kanpur University, Kanpur.
  12. Bose, T.K., Yadav, L.P. & Pal, P. (2003). Gladiolus. In: Commercial Flowers. Department of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Naya Prokash, pp. 1-33.
  13. Clarke, A.E., Considine, J.A., Ward, R. & Knox, R.B. (1977). Mechanism of pollination in gladiolus: roles of the stigma and pollen tube guide. Annals of Botany, 41(171), 15-20.
  14. Cohat, J. (1988). Estimation de heritabilite de quelquescaract_eres chezle Glaeıeul (Gladiolus grandiflorus Hort.). Agronomy, 8, 179-185.
  15. De Hertogh, A.A. & Le Nard, M. (Eds.) (1993). Physiological and biochemical aspects of flower bulbs (pp. 53-69). Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publication, pp. 297-320.
  16. Dhaduk, B.K., Singh, B. & Dadlani, N. K. (1987). Effect of different methods of pollination on seed set in gladiolus. South Indian Horticulture, 35(3), 260-265.
  17. Hossain, M.D., Bhuiyan, M.S.R., Talukder, K.H., Islam, M.R. & Syed, M.A. (2012). Study on vegetative propagating materials, flower characteristics and production of true seed through crossing among the different gladiolus genotypes. Advances in Biological Research, 6(2), 52-58.
  18. Huang, Su., Zhen, Gu. Yin. & Han, Yu. Lin. (1997). The hybridization of Iris spp. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 01.
  19. Jozghasemi, S., Rabiei, V. & Soleymani, A. (2015). Evaluation of the pigment’s concentration in the Iris species native to Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 6(1), 557-561.
  20. Kimberg, C.A. & Bingham, E.T (1998). Population improvement in alfalfa: Fertility and S1 forage yield performance in original and improved populations. Crop Science, 37, 1509-1513.
  21. Kumar, H.P., Kulkarni, B.S., Jagadeesha, R.C., Reddy, B.S., Shirol, A.M. & Mulge, R. (2008). Combining ability and heterosis for growth characters in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus Hort.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 21 (4), 544-547.
  22. Langton, E. A., Benjam, L, R. & Edmondson, R. N. (1999). The effect of crop density on plant growth and variability in cut-flower chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum morifolium). Ramau Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 74(4), 493-500.
  23. Mirsa, R.L. & Saini, H.C. (1990). Genotypic and phenotypic variability in gladiolus. Journal of Horticultural Science, 45, 427-34.
  24. Misra, R.L. & Singh, B. (1989). Gladiolus. In: T.K. Bose and L.P. Yadav (ed.) Commercial Flowers. Naya Prokash, Calcutta (India), pp. 253-267.
  25. Monika, S.S., Gupta, S.K., Suresh Kumar, A.K. & Dahiya, D.S. (2008). Studies on phenotypic correlation coefficient in gladiolus cultivars. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 3(1), 82-84.
  26. Moradi- Ashur, B. & Azimi, M.H. (2017). Increasing qualitative and quantitative indexes of Gladiolus grandifloras bush density and cultivation method. Scientific Journal of Promotion on Ornamental Flowers and Ornamental Plants, 2(2), 61-68. (in Farsi)
  27. Moradi- Ashur, B. & Azimi, M.H. (2017). Increasing qualitative and quantitative indexes of Gladiolus grandifloras bush density and cultivation method. Scientific Journal of Promotion on Ornamental Flowers and Ornamental Plants, 2(2), 61-68. (in Farsi)
  28. Moradi, B. (2009). Evaluation of genetic diversity of quantitative characters and superior single plants selection for propagation in gladiolus different varieties. Final Report. Publication of Research Station of Ornamental Plant Center at Mahalat, Iran, pp.45. (in Farsi)
  29. Mujib, A. (2015). Somatic embryogenesis in ornamentals and its applications. Life Sciences Press.  pp.188.
  30. Naderi, R., Kermanshahani, M., Fattahi, M.R. & Khalighi, A. (2015). Evaluating features of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) progenies resulted from cross pollination. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46(4), 575-589. (in Farsi)
  31. Negi, S.S., Raghava, S.P.S. & Sharma, T.V.R.S. (1982). New cultivars of gladiolus. Indian Horticulture, 26(4), 19-20.
  32. Negi, S.S., Sharma, T.V.R.S., Raghava, S.P.S. & Srinivasa, V.R. (1982). Variability studies in gladiolus. Indian Journal of Horiculture, 39(3-4), 269-72.
  33. Ohri, D. & Khoshoo, T.N. (1981). Cytogenetics of garden gladiolus I. Pollination mechanism and breeding system. In: Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 47, 510-515.
  34. Ohri, D. & Khoshoo, T.N. (1985). Cytogenetically evolution of garden gladiolus. Nucleus, 28, 216-221.
  35. Patra, S.K. & Mohanty, C.R. (2014). Variability studies in gladiolus. The Asian Journal of Horticulture, (9) 2, 352-355.
  36. Pattanaik, S., Paul, A. & Lenka, P.C. (2015). Genotypic and phenotypic variability and correlation studies in gladiolus. Journal Crop and Weed, 11(1), 113-119.
  37. Poon, T.B., Pokhrel, A., Shrestha, S., Sharma, S.R., Sharma, K.R. & Dev, M.B.L. (2012). Influence of intervarietal and interspecific crosses on seed set of gladiolus under mid-hill environments of Dailekh condition. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology, 13(1), 17-24.
  38. Rahemi, M. (2003). Postharvest: an introduction to the physiology and handling. Shiraz University Press. 437 pp. (in Farsi)
  39. Randhawa, S. & Mukhopadhyay, S.P. (1985). Promising varieties of gladiolus for commercial floriculture. Haryana Journal of Horticultur Sciense, 24(3-4), 197-203.
  40. Ranjan, P., Bhat, K.V, Misra, R.L, Singh, S.K. & Ranjan, J.K. (2010). Genetic relationships of gladiolus cultivars inferred from fluorescence based AFLP markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 123, 562-567.
  41. Roy, S.M., Thapliyal, R.C. & Phartyal, S.S. (2004). Seed source variation in cone, seed and seedling characteristic across the natural distribution of Himalayan low-level pine Pinus roxburghii, Sarg. Silvae Genetica, 53(3), 116-123.
  42. Sayadalian, M., Naderi, R., Fattahi Moghaddam, M.R. & Padasht Dahkaii, M.N. (2013). An evaluation of some different populations of Lilium ledebourii (Baker) Boiss, employing agro-morphological characteristics and multivariate analyses. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 44(4), 379-387. (in Farsi)
  43. Semenova, M.N. & Roshchina, V.V. (1993). Cholinesterase in anthers of higher plants. Soviet Plant Physiology, 40(2), 221-224.
  44. Singh, N., Meena, B., Pal, A.K., Roy, R.K., Tewari, S.K., Tamta, S. & Rana, T.S. (2017a). Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among gladiolus cultivars and related taxa of family Iridaceae. Journal of Genet, 96, 135-145.
  45. Tanaka, Y. (2006). Flower colour and cytochromes P450, Phytochemistry Reviews, 5(2-3), 28-291.
  46. Teixeira da Silva, J.A. & D. Kulus. (2014). Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature. Folia Horticulture, 26(2), 67-77.
  47. Willery, D. (2010). The garden of claude monet. Paris, France: Ulmer.
  48. Wilsie, C.P., Ching, C.B. & Hawk, V.B. (1952). Self-fertility and progeny performance in Bromus inermis. Agronomy Journal, 44, 605-609.