Expression of chloroplastic psbA gene in susceptible and tolerant pear cultivars in ‎response to invasion of fire blight agent and inhibitors of electron chains of the ‎chloroplasts and mitochondria

Document Type : Full Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Temperate Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education ‎and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran‎


Fire blight, the most important disease of pear tree causes necrosis by an oxidative stress in tissues. Therefore, identification of resistant cultivars and mechanisms of resistance to the oxidative stress of disease, that are mainly related to the chloroplasts, are important in breeding programs of this tree.  In order to study the role of chloroplasts in this interaction, expression of chloroplastic gene psbA that are under control of oxidation/reduction (redox), was evaluated in susceptible (Williams) and resistant (Harrow Sweet) cultivars during 48 h post inoculation by Erwinia amylovora in in vitro condition. In addition, expression of this gene was studied at presence of glutaraldehyde and rotenone as the inhibitors of the electron transport chain of chloroplast and mitochondria, respectively. The results showed higher necrosis progress rate in the in vitroshootlets of susceptible cultivar. Expression of psbA gene at presence of inhibitors in both presence and absence of E. amylovora was higher in cultivars Harrow Sweet. According to the results, the higher resistance level of cultivars Harrow Sweet to the disease could be due to the higher rapid responses and reaction of the chloroplasts of this cultivar in comparison to the cultivar Williams.


  1. Abdollahi, H. (2010). Pear, botany, cultivars and rootstocks. Iranian Agricultural Ministry Publications. Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  2. Abdollahi, H. & Majidi Heravan, E. (2005). Relation between fire blight resistance and different vegetative and reproductive traits in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars. Seed and Plant Journal, 21, 501-513. (in Farsi)
  3. Abdollahi, H., Ghahremani, Z., Erfani Nia, K. & Mehrabi, R. (2015). Role of electron transport chain of chloroplasts in oxidative burst of interaction between Erwinia amylovora and host cells. Photosynthesis Research, 124, 231-242.
  4. Abdollahi, H., Ghasemi, A. &Mehrabipour, S. (2008). Evaluation of fire blight resistance in some quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) genotypes, II. Resistance of genotypes to the disease. Seed and Plant Journal 24, 529-541. (in Farsi)
  5. Abdollahi, H., Muleo, R. & Rugini, E. (2005). Study of basal growth media, growth regulators and pectin effects on micropropagation of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars. Seed and Plant Journal,  21, 373-384. (in Farsi)
  6. Abdollahi, H., Ruzzi, M., Rugini, E. & Muleo, R. (2004). In vitro system for studying the interaction between Erwinia amylovora and genotypes of pear. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture,79, 203-212.
  7. Ahmadi, S., Alipour, M., Abdollahi, H. & Atashkar, D. (2013). Comparison of efficiency of indices for fire blight susceptibility evaluation in quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) in orchard condition. Seed and Plant Journal, 29(1), 331-347. (in Farsi)
  8. Azarabadi, S. R. (2014). Assessment of resistance and survey on some tolerance mechanisms to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in some new pear cultivars and rootstocks. M. Sc. Thesis. Varamin-Pishva Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  9. Azarabadi, S., Abdollahi, H., Torabi, M., Salehi, Z. & Nasiri, J. (2017). ROS generation, oxidative burst and dynamic expression profiles of ROS-scavenging enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in response to Erwinia amylovora in pear (Pyruscommunis L). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 147, 279-294.

10. Balmer, Y., Vensel, W. H., Tanaka, C. K., Hurkman, W. J., Gelhaye, E., Rouhier, N., Jacquot, J. P., Manieri, W., Schürmann, P., Droux, M. & Buchanan, B. B. (2004). Thioredoxin links redox to the regulation of fundamental processes of plant mitochondria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101, 2642-2647.

11. Bhattacharjee, S. (2011). Sites of generation and physicochemical basis of formation of reactive oxygen species in plant cell. In: S. Dutta Gupta, (Ed.). Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Higher Plants. (pp. 1-30) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

12. Davoudi, A. (1998). Evaluation of fire blight resistance in some apple and pear cultivars. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. (in Farsi)

13. Davoudi, A., Majidi, E., Rahimian, H. &Valizade, M. (2005). The intensity of disease of pear cultivars to fire blight with use the standard system of USDA. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Water and Soil Science, 9, 159-168. (in Farsi)

14. Ebadi, A., Erfani, J., Abdollahi, H. & Fattahi Moghaddam, M. R. (2014). Investigation of changes in antioxidant enzyme and total phenol level in some pear cultivars inoculated with fire blight disease. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 45, 127-136. (in Farsi)

15. Erfani, J., Abdollahi, H., Ebadi, A., Fatahi Moghadam, M. R. & Arzani, K. (2013). Evaluation of fire blight resistance and the related markers in some European and Asian pear cultivars. Seed and Plant Journal, 29-1, 659-672. (in Farsi)

16. Hassani, M., Salami, S. A., Nasiri, J., Abdollahi, H. & Ghahremani, Z. (2015). Phylogeneticanalysis of PR genes in somepome fruit specieswith the emphasis on transcriptionalanalysis and ROS responseunder Erwinia amylovora inoculation in apple. Genetica, 1-14.

17. Leblay, C., Chevreau, E. &Robin, L.M. (1991). Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaves of several pear cultivar (Pyrus communis L.). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 25, 99-105.

18. MalekiBalajoo, O., Keshavarzi, M., Rezaee-Danesh, Y., Damyar, S. & Jaafari, M. (2011). Fire blight resistance in a number of local Iranian apple germplasm. Seed and Plant Journal, 27, 25-36. (in Farsi).

19. Mansouryar, M., Erfani Moghadam, J., Abdollahi, H. & Salami, S A. (2016). Optimization of in vitro micropropagation protocol for some vigorous rootstocks of pear. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 47, 361-370. (in Farsi)

20. Maroofi, A. & Mostafavi, M. 1996. Evaluation of the resistance of apple, pear and quince varieties to fire blight. Acta Horticulturae, 411, 395-400.

21. Mazarei, M., Zakeri, Z. & Hassanzadeh, N. (1994). Fire blight situation on fruit trees in West Azerbaijan and Ghazvin provinces. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 30, 25-32. (in Farsi)

22. Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473-497.

23. Nourmohammadi, N., Abdollahi, H., Moeini, A. & Roohalamin, E. (2015). Effects of growth media and Fe source on micropropagation and rooting of semi-dwarf pear rootstocks, Pyrodwarf and OH×F87. Seed and Plant Journal, 31(1), 265-278. (in Farsi)

24. Oh, C. S. & Beer, S. V. (2005). Molecular genetics of Erwinia amylovora involved in the development of fire blight. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 253, 185-192.

25. Oh, C. S., Carpenter, S. C. D., Hayes, M. L., & Beer, S. V. (2010). Secretion and translocation signals and DspB/F-binding domains in the type III effector DspA/E of Erwinia amylovora. Microbiology, 156, 1211-1220.

26. Quoirin, M. &Lepoivre, P. (1977). Etude de mileuxadaptes aux cultures in vitro de Prunus. Acta Horticulturae, 78, 437-442.

27. Taheri Shahrestani, A., Abdollahi, H., Yakhchali, B., Mehrabi, R. & Eini Gandomani, O. (2017a). Comparison of the effects of Erwinia amylovora effector proteins on pear cultivars in active and inactive chloroplastic electron transport chain conditions. New Genetic, 3, 333-345. (in Farsi)

28. Taheri Shahrestani, A., Abdollahi, H., Yakhchali, B., Mehrabi, R. & Eini Gandomani, O. (2017b). Reponse of pear cultivars to invasion of mutant strains of fire blight causal agent (Erwinia amylovora) based on H2O2 generation. Seed and Plant Journal, 33-1, 315-323. (in Farsi)

29. Tahzibi Hagh, F. & Abdollahi, H. (2009). Histological and pomological characterization of sclereid cell clusters in some Iranian local and European pear cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 877, 765-769.

30. Trebitsh T. & Danon A. (2001). Translation of chloroplast psbA mRNA is regulated by signals initiated by both photosystems II and I. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 98, 12289-12294.

  1. 31.  van Der Zwet, T. & Keil, H. L. (1979). Fire blight, a bacterial disease of rosaceous plants. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Handbook No. 510.

32. Venisse, J. S., Guller G. & Brisset M. N. (2001). Evidence for the involvement of an oxidative stress in the initiation of infection of pear by Erwinia amylovora. Plant Physiology, 125, 2164-2172.

33. Xie, Z. & Chen, Z. (2000). Harpin-induced hypersensitive cell death is associated with altered mitochondrial functions in tobacco cells. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 13,183-190.

34. Zakeri, Z. & Sharif Nabi, B. (1991). Fire blight disease in Karaj. In: Proceedings of the 10th Iranian Plant Pathology Congress, 30 May-4 June 1991, Kerman University, Kerman, Iran. p157. (in Farsi).