Interaction effect of gibberellic acid and potassium sulfate on soluble sugars and ‎dry matter, resveratrol content and antioxidant capacity of grape berries

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran


In this research, the effect of foliar application of potassium sulfate (0, 1500 and 3000 mg/l) and gibberellic acid (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg/l) on yield and its components and qualitative and antioxidant capacity of ‘Bidaneh Sefid’ grapevine were investigated. This study was conducted factorially based on randomized complete block design in a vineyard at Malayer town. Vines were sprayed during three stages including of a week before bloom, two and four weeks after bloom. Based on results, the content of berry TSS, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity was found to be highest in K2SO4 at 3000 mg/L in combination with GA3 at 30 ppm treatment. Also, the highest berry total phenol and flavonoid content were related to 3000 mg/L K2SO4 treated- vines in combined to GA3 at 60 and 90 mg/l, respectively. Moreover, the highest berry sucrose and glucose content were related to those vines treated with 3th levels of K2SO4 and 2th levels of GA3 combination treatment. Foliar application of K2SO4 improved berry resveratrol and viniferin concentration in GA3-treated vines and berry stilbenes increased with increased K2SO4 doses. The highest activity of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase antioxidant enzymes were observed in vines treated with K2SO4 at 3000 mg/l in combination with GA3 at 90 mg/l. Totally, foliar application of K2SO4 especially at 3000 mg/l in combination with moderate doses of GA3 improved the yield, accumulated dry matter, increased the sugar content and the antioxidant capacity of the grape berries.


  1. Afshari, H., Sajedi, S. & Hokmabadi, H. (2014). The effect of GA3 and girdling on fruit characteristic of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Asgari). Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science, 28, 269-276. (in Farsi)
  2. Álvarez-Fernández, A., Paniagua, P., Abadía, J. & Abadía, A. (2003). Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit quality in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 5738-5744.
  3. Arshad, M, Garigurian, V., Nazemiyh, A. & Khalighi, A. (2006). Investigation on effect of nitrogen and potassium spray on fruit quantitative and qualitative traits and bearing of Sultana grapevine. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 7, 135-146. (in Farsi)
  4. Arya, S. P. N. (2000). Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of vitamin C. Analytica Chimica Acta, 417, 1-14.
  5. Badr, S. A., Tufenkjian, J. & Ramming D.W. (2005). Effects of pruning, girdling, and gibberellic acid application at bloom and berry set on yield and fruit quality of sweet scarlet table grape cultivar. Pp. 47. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of American Society of Enology and Viticulture, World Journal Sciences, 3, 91-96.
  6. Baghalzadeh Kuchebaghi, A., Zareh Nahandi, F. & Naghshi Band, H. (2015). The effect of growth regulators of CPPU and GA3 on quality and quantity of Sultana grapevine. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 46, 259-268. (in Farsi)
  7. Bavaresco, L. (1993). Effect of potassium fertilizer on induced stilbene synthesis in different grapevine varieties. Bulletin de O.I.V., 66, 674-689. (in French)
  8. Bergmeyer, N. (1970) Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse. AkademieVerlag, Berlin, pp. 636–647.
  9. Bradford, M. M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.
  10. Bunea, C.I., Pop, N., Babe, A.C., Matea, C., Dulf F. & Bunea, A. (2012). Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems. Chemistry Central Journal, 6, 1-9.
  11. Cakmak, I. (2005) The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168, 521-530.
  12. Casanova, L., Casanova, R., Moret, A. & Agusti, M. (2009). The application of gibberellic acid increases berry size of ‘Emperatriz’ seedless grape. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 919-927.
  13. Chang, C., Yang, M., Wen, H. & Chern, J. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food Drug Analysis, 10, 178-182.
  14. Cherel, L. (2004) Regulation of K+ channel activities in plants: from physiological to molecular aspects. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 337-351.
  15. Comis, D.B., Tamayo, D.M. & Alonso, J.M. (2001). Determination of monosacharids in cider by reversed- phase Liqueid Chromatography. Analytic Chemica Acta, 436, 173-178.
  16. Delgado, R., Gonzalez, M. R. & Martin, P. (2006). Interaction effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on anthocyanin composition and chromatic features of tempranillo grapes. OENO One, 40, 141-150.
  17. Dimovska, V., Petropulos, V. I., Salamovska, A. & Ilieva, F. (2014). Flame Seedless grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) and different concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3). Bulgaria Journal of Agriculture Science, 20, 137-142.
  18. Dokoozlian, N. K. (2001). Gibberellic acid applied at bloom reduces fruit set and improves size of ‘Crimson seedless’ table grapes. HortScience, 36, 706-709.
  19. Dolati Baneh, H., Jafari, H., Jalili Marandi, R., & Abdollahi, R. (2017). Effect of pre-bloom gibberellic acid application on seedlessness and some fruit traits of three Iranian seeded grape cultivars. Journal of Horticulture Science. 31, 110-121. (in Farsi)
  20. El-Razek, E. A., Treutter, D., Saleh, M. M. S., El-Shammaa, M., Abdel-Hamid, N. & Abou-Rawash, M. (2011). Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on productivity and fruit quality of' Crimson Seedless' Grapes. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2, 330-340.
  21. Gartel, W. (1993) Grapes. In W. F. Bennett Ed., Nutrient deficiencies and toxicities in crop plants (pp. 177–183). APS Press.
  22. Gasperl, A., Morvan-Bertrand, A., Prud'homme, M. P., van der Graaff, E. & Roitsch, T. (2016). Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, 1251.
  23. Giusti, M. M. & Wrolstad, R. E. (2001). Anthocyanins: characterization and measurement with Uv-visible spectroscopy. In: WROLSTAD, RE, Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, 1, 1-13.
  24. Gowda, V. N., Shyamalamma, S. & Kannolli, R. B. (2006). Influence of GA3 on growth and development of 'Thompson Seedless' grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Acta Horticulturae, 727, 239-242.
  25. Hale, C. R. (1977). Relation between potassium and the malate and tartrate contents of grape berries, Vitis, 16, 9-19.
  26. Hasan, M. & Bae, H. (2017). An overview of stress-induced resveratrol synthesis in grapes: perspectives for resveratrol-enriched grape products. Molecules, 22, 294.
  27. Herzog, V. & Fahimi, H. D. (1973). Determination of the activity of peroxidase. Analytical Biochemistry, 55, 554-562.
  28. Kaplan, A., Najda, A., Baryla, P. & Klimek, K. (2017). Effect of gibberellic acid concentration and number of treatments on yield components of “Einset Seedless” grapevine cultivar. Horticultural Science, 44, 195-200.
  29. Kaplan, M., Najda, A., Klimek, K. & Borowy, A. (2019). Effect of Gibberellic acid (GA3) inflorescence application on content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of grape (Vitis L.) 'Einset Seedless' berries. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 40, 1-10.
  30. Karimi, R. (2017). Potassium-induced freezing tolerance is associated with endogenous abscisic acid, polyamines and soluble sugars changes in grapevine. Scientia Horticulturae, 215,184-194.
  31. Karimi, R., Ershadi, A. & Esna-Ashari, M. (2014). Effects of Late- Season Nitrogen and Potassium Spray on Dormant Buds Cold Tolerance of ‘Bidaneh Sefid’ Grapevine. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 15, 419-433. (in Farsi)
  32. Karimi, R., Koulivand, M. & Rasouli, R. (2018).The effect of foliar application of urea and iron chelate on fruit set, yield, quality and nutritional indices of grape.  Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 8, 61-78. (in Farsi)
  33. Karimi R. & Mirzaei F. (2018) The effect of three drying methods on biophysical and biochemical properties of raisin.  Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 49 (2), 475 - 491. (in Farsi)
  34. Karimi, R., Mirzaei, F. & Rasouli, R. (2017). Phenolic acid, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minerals content of five grapevine cultivars. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 18, 335-346. (in Farsi)
  35. Klein, I., Strime, M., Fanberstein, L. & Mani, Y. (2000) Irrigation and fertigation effects on phosphorus and potassium nutrition of wine grapes. Vitis, 39(2), 55-62.
  36. Keller, M. (2015). The Science of Grapevines: Anatomy and Physiology. 2nd ed. Academic Press, Waltham, 400 p.
  37. Kyamarsi, M. & Eshghi, S. (2011). Effect of application time of copper sulfate, streptomycin and ga3 on parthenocarpy and quality of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘siyah-e-shiraz’). Journal of Horticultural Science, 25, 344-350. (in Farsi)
  38. Lester, G. E., Jifon, J. L. & Makus D. J. (2006). Supplemental foliar potassium applications with or without a surfactant can enhance netted muskmelon quality. HortScience, 41, 741-744.
  39. Lin, D., Huang, D. & Wang, S. (2004). Effects of potassium levels on fruit quality of muskmelon in soilless medium culture. Scientia Horticulturae, 102, 53-60.
  40. Marschner, P. (2012). Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 3rd ed. Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 178-189.
  41. Mengel, K. (2007). Potassium, P. 91-120 In: Barker A.V. and Pilbeam D.J., Handbook of plant nutrition, CRC Press, NY, USA.
  42. Minazadeh, R., Karimi R. & Mohamad Parast B. (2018). The effect of foliar nutrition of potassium sulfate on morphophysiological indices of grapevine under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 10, 83-106. (in Farsi)
  43. Mirbagheri, S.M., Karimi, R. & Rasouli, M. (2018). The combination effect of Potassium and Iron on fruit yield and quality, raisin and cold tolerance in grapevine. Journal of Crop Improvement, 20, 737-754. (in Farsi)
  44. Mohammed, S., Singh, D. & Ahlawat, V. P. (1993). Growth, yield and quality of grapes as affected by pruning and basal application of potassium. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 22, 179–182.
  45. Nakano, Y. & Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology, 22, 867-880.
  46. Nampila, R., Bing-Shiun, C., Ching-Cheng, C. & YauShiang, Y. (2010). Effect of GA3 and CPPU on berry size of seedless grapes. Horticulture NCHU 35(3), 53-64.
  47. Nojavan, S., Naseri, L. & Hassanpour, H. (2017). Effect of potassium sulfate and zinc sulfate foliar spray on some physical and chemical traits of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bidaneh Ghermez). Plant Production Technology, 16, 195-213. (in Farsi)
  48. Pires E.J.P., Terra, M.M., Pommer, C.V. & Passos, I.R.S. (2000). Improvement of cluster and berry quality of Centennial seedless grapes through gibberellic acid. Acta Horticulturae, 526, 293-299.
  49. Rogiers, S. Y., Greer, D. H., Hatfield, J. M., Orchard, B. A. & Keller, M. (2006). Mineral sinks within ripening grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). Vitis-Geilweilerhof, 45, 115.
  50. Saeidi, N., Rasouli, M. & Karimi. R. (2017). The effect of pre-harvest application of gibberellic and salicylic acid on yield, total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity of grape. In 10th National Congress in Iranian Horticultural Science, 4-7 Sep. Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, pp. 553-558. (in Farsi)
  51. Sanchez, C., Larrauri, J. A. & Saura-Calixto, F. A. (1998). Procedure to measure the antiradical efficiency of polyphenols. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 76, 270-276.
  52. Singh, B. (2002). Effect of macro and micro nutrient spray on fruit yield and quality of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Perlette). Acta Horticulture, 594, 197-202.
  53. Stephen, G. T., Ivo, R. & Camille, M. S. (2005). Gibberellin metabolism and signaling. Vitamins and Hormones, 72, 289-338.
  54. Tehranifar, A. & Mahmooditabar, S. (2009). Foliar application of Potassium and Boron during pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit development can improve fruit quality. Horticulture, Environment, Biotechnology, 3, 23-34.
  55. Timperio, A. M., d’Alessandro, A., Fagioni, M., Magro, P. & Zolla, L. (2012). Production of the phytoalexins trans-resveratrol and delta-viniferin in two economy-relevant grape cultivars upon infection with Botrytis cinerea in field conditions. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 50, 65-71.
  56. Velioglu, Y. S., Mazza, G., Gao, L. & Oomah, B. D. (1998). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 46, 4113-4117.
  57. Zaree, E., Javadi, T., Ghaderi, N. & Davari, M. (2016). Effect of potassium sulphate foliar application on some quantitative and qualitative traits of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Rashe. Plant Production Technology, 15, 179-190. (in Farsi)