Evaluation of some morpho-physiological traits of four basil ‎‎(Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars under water stress conditions

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, ‎Khorramabad, Iran ‎

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran ‎


The present study was conducted to evaluate some of the morphological and physiological traits of four basil cultivars under drought stress condition in greenhouse. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design. Four commercial basil cultivars (including Iranian green and violet basils, Genovese and Amethyst) were used as the first factor and drought stress at four levels (including irrigation at 100, 85, 70 and 55% FC) was used as second factor. The results showed that drought stress increased root length, but decreased dry weight of the plant. Plant height, leaf area, RWC and transpiration were reduced under drought stress treatments. The rate of membrane stability index increased although the reduction was different among the cultivars. Genovese and Iranian green cultivars showed the highest fresh and dry weights. The highest root dry weight and fresh and dry weights of plant were obtained in Genovese cultivar. Finally, Genovese cultivar showed the highest potential to introduce as tolerant cultivar in order to cultivation in drought condition.


  1. Akraminejad, O., Safari, M. & Abdolshahi, R. (2015). Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and extract of two cultivars (Satureja hortensis L.). under normal conditions and drought stress in Kerman region. Iran Agricultural Research, 13(4), 675-686. (in Farsi)
  2. ‏‏Bilal, A., Jahan, N., Ahmed, A., Bilal, S. N., Habib, S. & Hajra, S. (2012). Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on (Ocimum basilicum L.) inn-A review. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 4(23).
  3. Baghalian, K., Abdoshah, S., Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. & Paknejad, F. (2011). Physiological and phytochemical response to drought stress of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49 (2), 201-207.‏
  4. Dhopte, A. M. & Livera-M, M. (2002). Principles and Techniques for Plant Scientist [s]. Agrobios (India)
  5. Farhoudi, R. & Maki Zadeh Tafti, M. (2012). Effect of drought Stress on growth and development, Yield, Essential Oil Level and Kamazolen Percent of Three Chamomile Cultivars (Matricaria recutita L.) in Khuzestan. Agricultural Researches of Iran, 10 (4), 735-741 (in Farsi).
  6. Forouzandeh, M., Fanoudi, M., Arazmjou, E. & Tabiei, H. (2012). Effect of drought stress and types of fertilizers on the quantity and quality of medicinal plant Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Indian Journal of Innovations and developments, 1(10), 734-737.‏
  7. Payvast, Gh. (2009). Growing vegetables. Student Publications. Pp. 577. (in Farsi)  
  8. Moeini Alishah, H., Heidari, R., Hassani, A. & Asadi Dizaji, A. (2006). Effect of water stress on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(4), 763-767.‏
  9. Heidari, N., Pouriosef, M. & Tavakoli, A. (2014). The Effect of Drought Stress on Determination of Relativity, Its Parameters and Relative Water Content of Anion Plants (Pimpinenella anisum L.), Journal of Vegetation Research, 27, 829-839.
  10. Imam, Y. & Zavarehi, M. (2005). Drought tolerance in Higher plants (Genetically, Physiological and Molecular Biological Analysis). Academic Publishing Center of Tehran, Iran. 186 Pp. (in Farsi)
  11. Kocheki, AS., Alizadeh. (1995) Principles of Agriculture in Drylands, Volume One. Compilation of i-Arnon. 4th edition. Astan Quds Razavi Publishing, p. 260.
  12. Kordi, S., Saidi, M. & Ghanbari, F. (2013). Induction of drought tolerance in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by salicylic acid. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 2(2), 18-26.
  13. Lutts, S., Kinet, J. M. & Bouharmont, J. (1996). NaCl-induced senescence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. Annals of Botany, 78(3), 389-398
  14. Misra, A. & Srivastava, N. K. (2000). Influence of water stress on Japanese mint. Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants, 7(1), 51-58.‏
  15. Mizanzadeh, H. & Imam, Y. (2010). Investigation of indices of leaf area, height, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance of four species of wheat under the drought tension. Ecophysiology of Agricultural Plants, 2(2), 111-121. (in Farsi)
  16. Moeini Alishah, H., Heidari, R., Hassani, A. & Asadi Dizaji, A. (2006). Effect of water stress on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(4), 763-767.‏
  17. Omidbaigi, R. (2005). Production and processing of medicinal plants. Publications Astan Quds Razavi, Mashhad, 438p. (in Farsi)
    1. Paton, A. L. A. N., Harley, R. M. & Harley, M. M. (1999). Ocimum: An overview of classification and Relationships. In: Basil the genus Ocimum (Y Holm and R Hiltunen, Eds) Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, Pp 1-38.
  18. Pinheiro, H. A., DaMatta, F. M., Chaves, A. R., Fontes, E. P. & Loureiro, M. E. (2004). Drought tolerance in relation to protection against oxidative stress in clones of Coffea canephora subjected to long-term drought. Plant Science, 167(6), 1307-1314.‏
  19. Sairam, R. K., Rao, K. V. & Srivastava, G. C. (2002). Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration Plant Science, 163(5), 1037-1046.‏
  20. Singh, J. & Patel, A. L. (1996). Water status, gaseous exchange, proline accumulation and yield of wheat in response to water stress. Annals of Biology, 12, 77-81.‏
  21. Siosemardeh, A., Ahmadi, A., Poustini, K. & Ebrahimzadeh, H. (2004). Stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to photosynthesis and their relationship with drought resistance in wheat cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 35(1), 93-106. (in Farsi)
  22. Sirousmehr, A., Arbabi, J. & Asgharipour, M. R. (2014). Effect of drought stress levels and organic manures on yield, essential oil content and some morphological characteristics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Advances in Environmental Biology, 8 (4), 880-885.
  23. Upadhyaya, H., Khan, M. H. & Panda, S. K. (2007). Hydrogen peroxide induces oxidative stress in detached leaves of (Oryza sativa L.). General and Applied Plant Physiology, 33(1-2), 83-95.