Morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of short-term ozone stress in Strawberry (Fragaria anasassa) cvs. Aromas and Selva

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


Ozone (O3) is one of the important pollutants in lower atmosphere of earth which is created in the presence of sunlight from volatile substances and nitrogen oxide that emitted from the factories and cars. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of ozone pollution on the growth and some traits of strawberry. In this study two strawberry cultivars `Aromas’ (suitable for field cultivation) and `Selva’ (suitable for greenhouse cultivation) were used as commercial cultivars, resistant and sensitive to environmental stresses, respectively. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of ozone pollution on the growth and some other traits of plants which were pot-planted in a greenhouse and were treated with ozone. These cultivars were treated with three levels of ozone at concentrations of 0 (control – atmosphere with natural atmospheric ozone concentration), 50 and 100 mg.m-3 for a short period of 3 days. The treated plants showed ozone damage symptoms including chlorosis spots on the leaves, decreased amounts of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll, decreased soluble carbohydrate and increased dry weight, dry matter percentage, total antioxidant capacity and proline contents. In Selva cultivar, after finishing of stress period and beginning of new growth, some morphological disorders were also observed in the produced flowers. Keeping in mind the smaller damage in Aromas cultivar during stress and growth period after the stress was finished and the ability of this cultivar to increase total antioxidant capacity and proline contents in dealing with 50 and 100 mgm-3 ozone stresses, it seems that this cultivar can have stronger tolerance against the mentioned stress compared to Selva cultivar.


Main Subjects

  1. Baier, M., Kandlbinder, A., Golldack, D. & Dietz, K. J. (2005). Oxidative stress and ozone: perception, signaling and response. Plant Cell Environmental, 28, 1012-1020.
  2. Bates, L. S., Waldern, R. P. & Teare, M. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207.
  3. Bin, P., Shang-kun, L., Li P. L., Yun-xia, W., Jian-guo, Z., Lian-xin, Y. & Yu-long, W. (2015). Effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis and dry matter production of rice under different planting densities. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 26 (1), 17-24.
  4. Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E. & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food Science Technology, 28, 25-30.
  5. Chaudhary, N. & Agrawal, S. B. (2015). The role of elevated ozone on growth, yield and seed quality amongst six cultivars of mung bean. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 111, 286-294.
  6. Chen, Z., Shang, H., Cao, J. & Yu, H. (2015). Effects of ambient ozone concentrations on Contents of nonstructural carbohydrates in Phoebe bournei and Pinus massoniana seedlings in Subtropical China. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 226, 310-328.
  7. De La Rosa-Ibarra, M. & Maiti, R. K. (1995). Biochemical mechanism in glossy Sorghum lines for resistance to salinity stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 146, 515-519.
  8. Drogoudi, P. A. & Ashmore, M. R. (2002). Effects of elevated ozone on yield and carbon allocation in strawberry cultivars differing in developmental stage. Phyton (Austria). Special issue: Global change, 2, 45-53.
  9. Drogoudi, P. D. & Ashmore, M. R. (2000). Does elevated ozone have differing effects in flowering and de-blossomed strawberry?  New Phytology, 147, 561-569.
  10. Fiscus, E. L., Booker, F. L. & Burkey, K. O. (2005). Crop loss responses to ozone: Uptake, mode of action, carbon assimilation and partitioning. Plant, Cell and Environment, 28, 997-1011.
  11. Fontaine, V., Cabane, M. & Dizengremel, P. (2003). Regulation of phosphoenol pyruvate of carboxylase in Pinus halepensis needles submitted to ozone and water stress. Physiologia Plantarum, 117, 445-452.
  12. Gecer, M. K., Eyduran, E. & Yilmaz, H. (2013). The effect of different applications on fruit yield characteristics of strawberries cultivated under van ecological conditions. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23(5), 1431-1435.
  13. Ghaderi, N. & Siosemardeh, A. (2011). Response to Drought Stress of Two Strawberry Cultivars (cv. Kurdistan and Selva). Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 52(1), 6-12.
  14. Iriti, M. & Faoro, F. (2003). Benzothiadiazole (BTH) induces cell-death independent resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris against Uromyces appendiculatus. Journal of Phytopathology, 151, 171-180.
  15. Karami, F. (2017). Screening of some strawberry cultivars in response to low temperatures based on related morphological and physiological characteristics. Ph.D. thesis. In the field of Horticultural Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
  16. Keutgen, A. J. & Pawelzik, E. (2008). Apoplastic antioxidative system responses to ozone stress in strawberry leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165, 868-875.
  17. Keutgen, N.  & Lenz, F. (2001). Responses of strawberry to long-term elevated atmospheric ozone concentrations. I. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and macronutrient contents. Gartenbauwissenschaf, 66, 27-33.
  18. Khayyat, M., Vazi feshenas, M. R., Rajaee, S. & Jamalian, S. (2009). Potassium effect on ion leakage, water usage, fruit yield and biomass production by strawberry plants grown under NaCl stress. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 17(1), 79-88.
  19. Leisner, C. P. & Ainsworth, E. A. (2012). Quantifying the effects of ozone on plant reproductive growth and development. Global Change Biology, 18, 606-616.
  20. Mahalingam, R. (2015). Combined Stresses in Plant. In: Bohler, S., Cuypers, A., Vangronsveld, J. & Mahalingam, R. (Eds), Interactive effects between ozone and drought: Sorrow or Joy? (p.p.151-154). Springer.
  21. Mahalingam, R., Jambunathan, N., Gunjan, S., Faustin, E., Weng, H. & Ayoubi, P. (2006). Analysis of oxidative signalling induced by ozone in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Environment, 29, 1357-1371.
  22. Neufeld, H. S., Peoples, S. J., Davison, A. W., Chappelk, A. H., Somers, G. L., Thomley, J. E. & Booker, F. L. (2012). Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Environmental Pollution, 16, 74-81.
  23. Ozden, M., Demirel, U. & Kahraman, A. (2009). Effects of proline on antioxidant system in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) exposed to oxidative stress by H2O2. Scientia Horticulturae, 119, 163-168.
  24. Paquin, R. & Lechasseur, P. (1979). Observations sur une methode de dosage de la praline libre dansles extraits de plants. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57, 1851-1854. (in French)
  25. Pellegrini, E., Alessandra, F., Giacomo, L. & Cristina, N. (2015(. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress. Environment Science Pollution Research, 1-11.
  26. Porra, R. J. (2002(. The chequered history of the development and use of simultaneous equations for the accurate determination of chlorophylls a and b. Photosynthesis Research, 73, 149-156.
  27. Puckettea, M., Iyera, N. J., Tangb, Y., Daib, X. B. & Mahalingam, R. (2012). Differential mRNA Translation in Medicago truncatula Accessions with Contrasting Responses to Ozone-Induced Oxidative Stress. Molecular Plant, 5(1), 187-204.
  28. Qu, Y. N., Zhou, Q. & Yu, B. J. (2009). Effects of Zn2+ and niflumic acid on photosynthesis in Glycine soja and Glycine max seedlings under NaCl stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 65, 304-309.
  29. Sandermann, H. Jr. (1997). Forest Decline and Ozone. In: Heath, R. L. & Talor, J. G. (Eds). Physiological Processes and Plant Responses to Ozone Exposure. (p.p. 350-351). Ecological Studies.
  30. Shariepour, Z. & Aliakbari Bidokhti, A. A. (2013). Investigation of surface ozone over Tehran for 2008-2011. Journal of physics of the Earth and space, 3(3), 191-206. (in Farsi)
  31. Singleton, V. L. & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.
  32. Thwe, A. A., Vercambre, G., Gautier, H., Gay, F., Phattaralerphong, J. & Kasemsap, P. (2014). Response of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence to acute ozone stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.). Photosynthetica, 52 (1), 105-116.
  33. Vahala, J., Keinanen, M., Schutzendubel, A., Polle, A. & Kangasjarvi, J. (2003). Differential effects of elevated ozone on two hybrid Aspen genotypes predisposed to chronic ozone fumigation; Role of ethylene and salicylic acid. Plant Physiology, 196-205.
  34. Verslues, P. E. & Sharma, S. (2010). Proline metabolism and its implications for plant-environment interaction. Arabidopsis Book, 8 (140), 1-23.
  35. Wang, X., Yang, L., Kobayashi, K., Zhu, J., Chen, C. P., Yang, K., Tang, H. & Wang, Y. (2012). Investigations of spikelet formation in hybrid rice as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone concentration in China. Agriculture, Ecosystem and environment, 150, 63-91.
  36. Wilkinson, S. & Davies, W. J. )2010(. Drought, ozone, ABA and ethylene: new insights from cell to plant to community. Plant, Cell and Environment, 33, 510-525.
  37. Yogesh, K., Sharma, Keith, R. & Davi, K. R. (1994). Ozone-lnduced Expression of Stress-Related Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology, 105, 1089-1096.