Effect of water deficit stress on yield, essential oil and some of physiological traits in different ecotypes of Thymus daenensis subsp. daenensis in Karaj region

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former Ph.D. Student, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences and EngFaculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


In order to study the effect of water deficit stress on yield, essential oil and some of physiological traits in different ecotypes of Thymus daenensis subsp. daenensis, an experiment was performed as split plot design based on RCBD with three replicates, in Karaj (2013). In this experiment, eight ecotypes of this plant were studied under three water deficit treatments including normal irrigation, stop irrigation at the start of flowering and stop irrigation at the vegetative stage. Result indicated that ecotypes under the different level of irrigation showed different responses for essential oil percentage, dry matter yield, chlorophyll, carotenes, proline and activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase enzymes. Close correlation was not observed between essential oil percentage and dry matter yield with chlorophyll, carotene, proline, and enzymes activity. The highest dry matter yield (17.27 gr per plant) was obtained in Malayer Bala ecotype under normal irrigation and the highest essential oil percentage (6.2 %) was obtained in ecotype of Malayer2 under stop irrigation at the vegetative stage. The highest essential oil yield as the most economical important was found in ecotype of Arak under the both stress treatments.


Main Subjects

  1. Abbaszadeh, B., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., Ardakani, M. R. & Aliabadi, F. H. (2008). Effect of drought stress on quantitative and qualitative essential oil of mint. Abstracts Book of 5th International Crop Science Congress & Exhibition, Korea, p: 23.
  2. Abbaszadeh, B., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., Lebaschi, M., Bagherkandi, M. & Moghadami, F. (2007). Effect of drought stress on proline, soluble carbohydrates, chlorophyll and relative water content of Melissa officinalis L. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 23(4), 504-513. (in Farsi)
  3. Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase In: L. Packer (Ed), methods in enzymology. Academic press, Orlando, 105, 121-126.
  4. Aghdassi, E. and Johane, P. (2000). Breathe alkanes as a marker of oxidative stress in difference clinical conditions. Free Radical Biology Medicine Society, 28, 880-886.
  5. Alkire, B. H., Simon, J. E., Palevtich, D. & Putievsky, E. (1993). Water management for Midwestern peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) growing in highly organic soils, Indiana, USA. Acta Horticulturae, 344, 544-556.
  6. Aman, A. (2004). Effect of drought stress on yield, yield components and some of physiological traits in different genotypes of Sunflower. M.Sc. thesis. Collage of Agriculture. Azad University of Karaj. (in Farsi)
  7. Asada, R. (1992). Ascorbate peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide, scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiol Plant Journal, 85, 235-241.
  8. Babaee, K., Dehaghi, M.A., Sanavi, A. & Jabbari, R. (2010). Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2(26), 239-251. (in Farsi)
  9. Baghalian, K., Abdoshah, Sh., Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. & Paknejad, F. (2011). Physiological and phytochemical response to drought stress of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49, 201-207.
  10. Barazandeh, M. & Bagherzadeh, K. (2007). Evaluation of essential oil chemical components of Thymus daenensis Celak. collected from four regions in Esfahan province. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 6 (3), 15-19. (in Farsi)
  11. Bates, I. S., Waldern, R. P. & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207.
  12. Boominathan, R. & Doran, P. M. (2002). Indused oxidative stress in roots of the hyperaccumulator, Alyssum bertolonii. Newphytologist, 156, 205-215.
  13. Casper, B. B., Forseth, I. N. & Wait, D. A. (2006). A stage-based study of drought response in Cryptantha flava (Boraginaceae): gas exchange, water use efficiency, and whole plant performance. American Journal of Botany, 93(7), 977-987.
  14. Diaz, M. N. B., Frei, J., Vita, A. & Keaney, J. K. (1997). Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 408-416.
  15. Eman, E., Aziz, S. T., Hendavwi, E. & Omer, E. A. (2008). Effect of soil type and irrigation interval on plant growth, essential oil yield and constituents of Thymus vulgaris plant. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 4(4), 443-450.
  16. Esterbauer. H., Grebicki, J., Puhl, H. & Jugens, G. (1992). The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in oxidation modification of LDL. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 100, 34-90.
  17. Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D. & Basra, S. M. A. (2009). Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 29, 185-212.
  18. Farooqi, A. H. A., Fatima, S., Ansari, S. R. & Sharma, S. (1999). Effect of water stress on growth and essential oil metabolism in Cymbopogon martini (plamerosa) cultivars. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 11, 491496.
  19. Gharibi, Sh., Tabatabaiee, B. A., Saiedi, Gh., Goli, S. A. H. & Talebi, M. (2012). Effect of drought stress on some of physiological traits and antioxidant activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 3(3), 181-190. (in Farsi)
  20. Gholami, H., Farhadi, R., Rahimi, M., Zeinalikharaji, A. & Askari, A. (2013). Effect of growth hormones on physiology characteristics and essential oil of Basil under drought stress condition. Journal of American Science, 9 (1), 61-63.
  21. Habibi, D., Uroujniya, S., Fathollataleghani, D., Pazaki, E. & Davoodi Fard, M. (2012). Antioxidants and yield evaluation of sugar beet genotypes under drought stress. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 8(4), 63-82. (in Farsi)
  22. Hasani, A. (2003). Effects of drought and salinity stress on some of morphological and physiological characteristics in Basil (cv. Kashkani lolo). Ph.D. thesis. University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  23. Havaux, M. (1998). Carotenoids as membrane stabilizers in chloroplasts. Trends in Plant Science, 3, 147-151.
  24. Hussein, H. S., El Sherbeny, S. E., Hendawy, S. F., Gohary, A. E & Ghazal, G. M. E. M. (2014). Response of Mentha longifolia to water irrigation intervals and/or Mepiquat Chloride treatments. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 5 (4), 995-1004.
  25. Inotai, K. (2013). The effect of water deficit on some stress parameters of Ocimum basilicum L. and Satureja hortensis L. Ph.D. thesis. School of Horticultural Sciences, University of Budapest.
  26. Jaleel, C. A., Gopi, R., Sankar, B., Gomathinayagam, M. & Panneerselvam, R. (2008). Differential responses in water use efficiency in two varieties of Catharanthus roseus under drought stress. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 331, 42-47.
  27. Jamzad, Z. (2010). Thymes and savorys of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. (in Farsi)
  28. Janssen, A. M., Scheffer, J. J. C. & Baerheim Svendsen, A. (1987). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils. A 1976-1986 literature review on possible applications. Pharmacy World and Science, 9 (4), 193-197.
  29. Jiang, Y. & Huang, N. (2001). Drought and heat stress injury to two cool season turfgrasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science, 41, 436-442.
  30. Jose, M. & Gomez, M. E. (1999). Antioxidant Enzymes and Human Disease. ChemBioChem Journal, 32(8), 595-603.
  31. Kiani, S.P., Maury, P., Sarrafi, A. & Grieu, P. (2008). QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Science, 175, 565-573.
  32. Manoranjan, K. & Bandhu-Mishra, D. (1976). Catalase, peroxidase and poly phenol oxidase activities during rice leaf senescence. Plant Biochemistry, 57, 315-319.
  33. Massacci, A., Nabiev, S.M., Pietrosanti, L., Nematov, S. K., Chernikova, T. N., Thor, K. & Leipner, J. (2008). Response of the photosynthetic apparatus of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to the onset of drought stress under field conditions studied by gas-exchange analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 46, 189-195.
  34. Mittler, R. (2002). Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 7,405-410.
  35. Nayyar, H. & Gupta, D. (2006). Differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plants to water deficit stress: Association with oxidative stress and antioxidants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 58, 106-113.
  36. Niakan, M. & Zangane, A. (2014). Effect of drought stress and Salicylic acid on antioxidant enzymes activity in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Journal of Plant Ecology Research, 9(1), 38-45. (in Farsi)
  37. Niyogi, K.K. (1999). Photo protection revisited: genetic and molecular approaches. Annual Review of Plant Biology. Plant Molecular Biology, 50, 333–359.
  38. Pagiha, D. E. & Valentine, W. N. (1987). Studies on the qualitative characterization of Glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 70, 158-168.
  39. Pazaki, A., Rezaiee, H., Habibi, D. & Paknejad, F. (2012). Effect of drought stress, ascorbate and gibberellin spraying on some of morphological traits, water relative content and cytoplasmic membrane stability of Thymus vulgaris L. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 8 (1), 1-13. (in Farsi)
  40. Prochazkova, D., Sairam, R. K., Srivastava, G. C. & Singh, D. V. (2001). Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity as the basis of senescence in maize leaves. Plant Science, 161, 765-771.
  41. Reddy, A.R., Chaitanya, K.V. & Vivekanandan, M. (2004). Drought induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161, 1189-1202.
  42. Rustaie, A. (2009). The effect of ecological conditions on morphologic and phytochemical properties in Thymus daenensis Celak. M.Sc Thesis. Tehran University, Iran. (in Farsi)
  43. Saie, M. (2004). Evaluation of correlation some of morphological traits with drought tolerance in different cultivars of Sorghum. M.Sc. thesis. Collage of Agriculture. Azad University of Karaj. (in Farsi)
  44. Saiedfar, S. & Mahmoudi, M. (2013). Effect of drought stress on antioxidant enzymes activity in Agastache foeniculum Pursh Kuntze. Plant Ecosystem, 34, 21-30. (in Farsi)
  45. Shafei, S. (2005). The effect of water deficit stress on some of physiological characteristics, yield and yield components of Soybean. M.Sc. thesis. Collage of Agriculture. Azad University of Karaj. (in Farsi)
  46. Shehab, G. G., Ahmed, O. K. & El-Beltagi, H. S. (2010). Effects of various chemical agents for alleviation of drought stress in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici, 38, 139-148.
  47. Smith, J. H. C. & Benitez, A. (1955). Chlorophylls analysis in plant materials in: Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  48. Srivastava, Sh. & Srivastava, M. (2014). Morphological changes and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana under water stress. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3417-3422.
  49. Tahkokorpi, M., Taulavuori, K., Laine, K. & Taulavuori, E. (2007). After effects of drought-related winter stress in previous and current year stems of Vaccinium myrtillus L. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 61, 85-93.
  50. Upadhyaya, H. & Panda, S. K. (2004). Responses of Camellia sinensis to drought and rehydration. Biologia Plantarum, 48, 597-600.
  51. Willekens, H., Chamnongpol, S., Davey, M., Schraudner, M., Angebartels, C., Van Montagu, M., Inze, D. & Van Camp, W. (1997). Catalase is a sink for H2O2 and is indispensable for stress defense in C3 plants. Embo Journal, 10, 1723-1732.
  52. Zamani, Z., Mostajeran, A. & Asghari, Gh. (2012). Effect of drought stress on growth and catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity in Curcuma longa L. Plant Sciences Research, 7(3), 31-37. (in Farsi)