Effects of gibberellic acid and humic acid on some growth characters of Daffodil (Narcissus jonquilla cv. German)

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran


In order to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid and humic acid on some morphological and physiological traits of Narcissus cv. German, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 2 factors, 12 treatments, 3 replications and 5 pots in each plot. The first factor was gibberellic acid at four levels with concentrations of zero (control), 150, 300 and 450 ppm which was carried out by immersing onions in the mentioned concentrations of gibberellic acid for 48 hours. The second factor was humic acid at three levels with concentrations of zero (control), 250 and 500 ppm which was carried out as a foliar application at the vegetative stage. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of gibberellic acid treatment on appearance of flowering stem, flowering time and flower diameter had a significant effect compared to control. Gibberellic acid and humic acid treatments had individually significant effects on total chlorophyll, carotenoid and diameter of narcissus bulbs. The most leaf area was also related to the interaction of gibberellic acid (300 ppm) and humic acid (500 ppm). In general, results of this study indicated that according to the studied traits, use of gibberellic acid (300 ppm) and humic acid (500 ppm) was the best treatments to improve the studied traits.


Main Subjects

  1. Adani, F., Genevini, P., Zaccheo, P. & Zocchi, G. (1998). The effects of commercial humic acid on tomato plant growth and mineral nutrition, Journal plant Nutrition, 21(3), 561-575.
  2. Ahmad, I., Saquib, R. U., Qasim, M., Saleem, M., Sattar Khan, A. & Yaseen, M. (2013). Humic acid and cultivar effects on growth, yield, vase life, and corm characteristics of gladiolus. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 73 (4), 339-344.
  3. Anonymous, S. (1990). Austra: Vegetable production training. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center Publication, pp. 447.
  4. Baldotto, M. A. & Lilian, E. B. (2013). Gladiolus dvelopment in response to bulb treatment with different concenterations of humic acids. Revista Ceres, 60(1), 138-142.
  5. Bhujbal, G. B., Chavan, N. G. & Mehetre, S. S. (2014). Importance of growth regulatore and cold storage treatment for breaking of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) corm dormancy. An International Quality Journal in Life Science, 9(2), 501-505.
  6. Brooking, I. R. & Cohen, D. (2002). Gibberellin induced flowering in small tubers of Zantedeschia ‘Black Magic’. Scientia Horticulturae, 95, 63-73.
  7. Chomchalow, N. (2004). Flower forcing for cut flower production with special reference to Thailand. Assumption University Journal, 7, 137-144.
  8. Dastyari, M. & Hoseini Fari, M. (2014). Effect of humic acid and putrescine on vegetative charactristics and vase life of rose. International Journal of Greenhouse Technology, 5(20), 241-250. (in Farsi)
  9. Davis, P. J. (1988). Plant Hormones and Their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Kluwer Academic Poblishers, USA. Pp, 432.
  10. Eid, R. A, & Abou-Leila, B. H. (2006). Response of croton plants to gibbeellic acid, benzyladenine and ascorbic acid application. Word Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(2), 174-179.
  11. Hanks, G. R. (1984). Factors affecting the response of tulips to gibberellin. Scientia Horticulturae, 23, 397-390.
  12. Hassanpour Asil, M., Roein, Z., & Rabiei, B. (2008). Effects of low temperature and GA3 on quality of cut flowers of Narcissus jonquilla, German. JournalScientia Horticulturae, 9(2), 129-138. (in Farsi)
  13. Hunter, D. A., Yi, M., Xu, X. & Ried, M. S. (2004). Role of ethylene in perianth senescence of daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. ‘Dutch Master’). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 32, 269-280.
  14. Ichimura, K. & Goto, R. (2002). Extension of vase life of cut Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis flowers by combined treatment with STS and Gibberellin GA3. Journal Japan Society. Scientia Horticulturae, 71, 226- 230.
  15. Kurtar, E. S, & Ayan, A. K. (2005). Efffect of gibberellic acid and indol-3acidic acid (IAA) on flowering stalk elongation and bulb charactristics of Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana var. Cassini). Pakistan Journal of Biology Sciences, 8(2), 273-277.
  16. lahvirdizadeh, N. & Nazari Deljou, M. (2014). Effect of humic acid on morph-physiological traits. Nutrients uptake and postharvest vase life of pot marigold cut flower (Calendula officinalis cv. Crysantha) in hydroponic system. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 5(18), 133-143.
  17. Lichtenthder, H. K. (1987). Cholorophylls and carotenoids, Pigments of Photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology, 148, 350-382.
  18. Mutui, T. M., Emongor, V. E. & Hutchinson, M. J. (2001). Effect of accel on the vase life and postharvest quality of (Alestromeria aurantiaca L.)  cut flowers. Africa Journal Scientia Tehnology, 2, 82-88.
  19. Nakhaie, F., Khalifi, A., Naseri, M. A. & Abroumand, P. (2004). Effect of plant growth regulators on morphological traits and essential oil of Narcissus. Quarterly Periodical of Knowledge of Modern. Sustainable Agriculture, 6(21), 94-98. (in Farsi)
  20. Nardi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A. & Vianello, A. (2002). Physiological effects of humic substances on higher plants. Soil Biochemistry, 34 (11), 1527- 1536.
  21. Nikbakht A., Kafi, M., Babalar, M., Xia, Y.P., Luo, A. & Etemadi, N. (2008). Effect of commercial humic acid on plant growth, nutrients uptake and postharvest life of gerbera. Journal of  Plant Nutrition, 31, 2155-2167.
  22. Ram, R., Mukherjee, D. & Manuja, S. (2002). Plant Growth Regulators Affect the Dvelopment of Both Corms and Cormels in Gladiolus. Scientia Horticulturae, 37, 343-344.
  23. Rani, P. & Singh, P. (2013). Impact of gibberellic acid pre-tretreatment on growth and flowering of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajval. Journal of Tropical Plant Physiolgy, 5, 33-41.
  24. Rechards, D. E., Ait-Ali, K. E. T. & Harberd, P. (2001). How gibberellin regulates growth and development: A Molecular genetic analysis of gibberellin signaling. Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 52, 67-88.
  25. Rietveld, P. L., Wilkinson, C., Franssen, H. M., Balk, P. A., Vanderplas, L. H. W., Weisbeek, P. J. & De Boer, A. D. (2000). Low Temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 587-594.
  26. Salman, S. R., Abou-Hussein, S. D., Abdel-Mawgoud, A. M. R. & El-Nemr, M. A. (2005). Fruit yield and quality of watermelon as affected by hybrids and humic acid application. Journal of Applied Scientia Research, 1, 51-58.
  27. Saniewski, M., Kawa-Miszczak, L., Wegezynowicz-Lesiak, E. & Okubo, H. (1999). Abscisic acid inhibited shoot growth induced by gibberellic acid in cooled derooted bulbs of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.). Journal Fruit and ornamental Plant Research, 7, 94-104.
  28. Sarkar, M. A. H., Hossain, M. I., Uddin, A. F. M. J., Uddin, M. A. N. & Sarkar, M. D. (2014). Vegetative, floral and yield attributes of gladiolus in response to gibberellic acid and corm size. Scientia Agriculturae, 7 (3), 142-146. 
  29. Skutink, E., Llukaszews, A., Serek, M. & Rabiza, J. (2001). Effect of growth regulators on postharvest characteristics of Zantedeschia aethiopica. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 21, 241-246.
  30. Sood, S. & Nagar, P. K. (2005). Alteration in endogenous polyamines in bulbs of tuberose (Polianthes tuberose L.) during dormancy. Scientia Horticulturae, 105, 483-490.
  31. Tejada, M. & Gonzales, L. (2003). Influence of foliar fertilization with amino acids and humic acids on productivity and quality of asparagus. Biology Agriculturae Horticulturae, 21, 277-279.
  32. Watad, A. A., Luria, G. & Borochov, A. (1999). Aconitum: effect of environmental conditions and tuber size on growth, flowering and tuber production. Scientia Horticulturae, 81, 135-147.
  33. Xu, R. Y., Niimi, Y. & Han, D. S. (2006). Changes in endogenous absisic acid and soluble sugars levels during dormancy-release in bulbs of Lilium rubellum. Scientia Horticulturae, 111, 68-72.
  34. Yamada, K., Ito, M., Oyama, T., Nakada, M., Maesaka, M. & Yamaki, S. (2007). Analysis of sucrose metabolism during petal growth of cut roses. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 43, 174-177.
  35. Yusef Saleh, S. & Al-Safar, B. (2006). Effect of treatment and nitrogen on growth and development of gladiolus corms. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9 (13), 2516-2519.
  36. Zandonadi, D. B., Canellas, L. P. & Facmana, A. R. (2007). Indolacetic and humic acids induce lateral root development through a concerted plasmalemma and tonoplast H+ pumps activation. Planta, 225, 1583-1595.