Extension of storage life and quality properties of grape cv. 'Bidaneh Ghermez’ by Thymus essential oil

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Ardakan, Yazd, Iran

2 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Considerable economic losses to harvested fruits are caused by postharvest fungal decay, which can be significantly controlled by edible coatings. Grape as a perishable fruit is exposure to fungal infection especially Botrytis cinerea. In this study, thyme essential oil used as an alternative potential treatment for antifungal to inhibition of fungal diseases and maintaining postharvest quantitative and qualitative characteristic of table grape cv Bidaneh Ghermez. When TSS of grapes were almost 20 ºbrix harvested and after inoculation with Botrytis cinerea treated by 0, 150 and 300 µl/l Thymus essential oil, packed in about 200 g packages, then stored for 60 days in storage 0± 2 °C by 90% relative humidity. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with 3 replications. After treatment of fruit weight loss, color change, pH, decay and qualitative factors were measured. The results showed that treated fruit had lower decay, weight loss, shatter and cracking, and higher quality. Lighting, hue angle and Chroma decreased by the time. Also, lighting in treated fruit was lower than control. By the time, TSS and TA respectively increased and decreased. By increasing the essential oil concentration, fungi growth significantly decreased, but in most characteristics such as weight loss, lighting, hue angle, Chroma, browning, firmness, cracking and berry abscission concentrations of essential oil did not show significant difference.


  1. Artes-Hernandez, F., Tomas- Bareran, F. A. & Artes, F. (2006). Modified atmosphere packaging preserves quality of SO2 free Superior Seedless table grapes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 39, 146-154.
  2. Asghari Marjanlu, A., Mostofi, Y., Shoeibi, Sh. & Maghumi, M. (2009). Effect of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Essential oil on Gray Mold Control and Postharvest Quality of Strawberry (cv. Selva). Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(29), 131-139. (in Farsi)
  3. Asghari, M. R. & Khomeyri Sani, M. (2010). Effect of postharvest putrescine and nitric Oxide application on some quality attributes and total content phenolics on table grape (cv. Sefide bidane). Journal of food research, 3(2), 61-72. (in Farsi)
  4. Bonilla, J., Atarés, L., Vargas, M. & Chiralt, A. (2012). Effect of essential oils and omogenization conditions on properties of chitosan-based films. Food Hydrocolloids, 26, 9-16.
  5. dos Santos, N. S. T., Athayde, A. J. A., Vasconcelos de, O. C. D., de Sales, C. V., de Melo, S., da Sousa, S. R., Montenegro, S. T. C. & de Souza, E. L. (2012). Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Food Microbiol. 32, 345-353.
  6. De Sousa, L. L., Andrade, S. C. A., Athayde, A. J. A. A., Oliveira, C. E. V., Sales, C. V., Marta Suely Madruga, M. S. & Souza, E. L. (2013). Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 165, 312-318.
  7. Dehestani Ardakani, M. (2008). The effect of chitosan and thymus extract on storage life and maintaining quality of two Iranian table grape. M.Sc. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Tehran University, Iran (In Farsi)
  8. Del-Valle, V., Hernandez-Munoz, P., guard, A. & Galotto, M. J. (2005). Development of a cactus-mucilage edible coating (opunta ficus) indical and its application to extend strawberry (fragaria × ananassa) shelf-life. Food chemistry, 91, 751-756.
  9. Ferrario-Mery, S., Masclaux, C., Aszuki, M. H., Valadier, B., Hirel, K. & Foyer, C.H. (2001). Glutamine and alpha ketoglutaret are meto. Planta, 213, 265-271.
  10. Freire, M. M., Jham, G. N., Dhingra, O. D., Jardim, C. M., Barcelos, R. C. & Valente, V. M. M. (2012). Composition, antifungal activity and main fungitoxic components of the essential oil Mentha piperita L. Journal of Food Safety, 32, 29-36.
  11. Gao, P., Zhu, Z. & Zhang, P. (2013). Effects of chitosan–glucose complex coating on postharvest quality and shelf life of table grapes. Carbohydrate Polymers, 95, 371-378.
  12. Hassani, A., Fathi, Z., Ghosta, Y., Abdollahi, A., Meshkatalsadat, M. H. & Marandi, R. J. (2012). Evaluation of plant essential oils for control of postharvest brown and gray mold rots on apricot. Journal of Food Safety, 32, 94-101.
  13. Hernandez-Munoz, P.,  Almenar, E., Ocio, M. J. & Gavara, R. (2006). Effect of calcium dips and chitosan coatings on postharvest life of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 39, 247-253.
  14. Hernandez-Munoz, P., Almenar, E., Del Valle, V., Velez, D. & Gavara, D. (2008). Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 110, 428-435.
  15. http://amar.maj.ir
  16. Martinez-Romero, D., Guillen, F., Valverde, J. M., Bailen, G., Zapata, P., Serrano, M., Castillo, S. & Valero, D. (2007). Influence of carvacrol on survival of Botrytis cinerea inoculated in table grapes. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 115, 144-148.
  17. Meng, X., Li, B., Liu, J. & Tian, S. (2007). Physiological responses and quality attributes of table grape fruit to chitosan preharvest spray and postharvest coating during storage. Food Chemistry, 101, 501-508.
  18. Mostofi, Y. & Najafi, F. (2006). LaboratoryanalyticalmethodsinHorticultural Science, Tehran University press. pp 136. (in Farsi)
  19. Outtara, B., Simard, R. E., Piette, G., Begin, A. & Holley, R. A. (2000). Diffusion of acetic and propionic acids from chitosan-based antimicrobial packaging films. Journal of Food Science, 65, 768-773.
  20. Raybaudi-Massilia, R. M., Mosqueda-Melgar, J. & Martin-Belloso, O. (2008). Edible alginate-based coating as carrier of antimicrobials to improve shelf-life and safety of fresh-cut melon. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 121, 313-327.
  21. Rojas-Grau, M. A., Raybaudi-Massilia, R. M., Soliva-Fortuny, R. C., Avena-Bustillos, R. J., McHugh, T. H. & Martin-Belloso, O. (2007). Apple puree-alginate edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to prolong shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 45, 254-264.
  22. Santos, N. T. S., Athayde, A. J. A. A., Oliveiram, C. E. V., Sales, C. V., Silva, S. M., Silva, R. S., Stamford, T. C. M. & Souza, E. L. (2012). Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Food Microbiology, 32, 345-353.
  23. Sellamuthu, P. S., Sivakumar, D., Soundy, P. & Korsten, L. (2013). Enhancing the defence related and antioxidant enzymes activities in avocado cultivars with essential oil vapours. Postharvest Biology & Technology, 81, 66-72.
  24. Serrano, M., Martinez-Romero, D., Guillen, F., Valverde, J. M., Zapata, P. J., Castillo, S. & Valero, D. (2008). The addition of essential oils to MAP as a tool to maintain the overall quality of fruits. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 9, 464-471.
  25. Shiri A., Bakhshi, D., Ghasemnezhad, M., Dadi, M., Papachatzis, A. & Kalorizou, H. (2013). Chitosan coating improved the shelf life and postharvest quality of table grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivar 'Shahrudi'. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37, 148-156.
  26. Sousa, J. P., Azerêdo, G. A., Torres, R. A., Conceição, M. L., Vasconcelos, M. A. S. & Souza, E. L. (2012). Synergies of carvacrol and 1, 8-cineole to inhibit bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 158, 9-13.
  27. Tanada-Palmu, S. P. & Grosso, C. R. F. (2005). Effect of edible wheat gluten-based films and coatings on refrigerated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) quality.  Postharvest Biology and Technology, 36, 199-208.
  28. Thumula, P. (2006). Studies on Storage Behaviour of Tomatoes Coated with Chitosan-Lysozyme Films. M.Sc. thesis. Department of Bioresource Engineering Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  29. Valero, D., valverde, J. M., Romero, D. M., Guillen, F., Castillo, S. & Serrano, M. (2006). The combination of modified atmosphere packaging with eugenol or thymol maintain quality, safety and functional properties of table grapes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 317-327.
  30. Vargas, M., Albors, A., Chiralt, A. & Gonzalez-Martinez, C. (2006). Quality of cold-stored strawberries as affected by chitosan–oleic acid edible coatings. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 164-171.
  31. Xu, W. T., Huang, K. L., Guo, F., Qu, W., Yang, J. J., Liang, Z. H. & Luo, Y. B. (2007). Postharvest grapefruit seed extract and chitosan treatments of table grapes to control Botrytis cinerea. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 46, 86-94.
  32. Youwei, Y. & Yinzhe, R. (2013). Effect of chitosan coating on preserving character of post-harvest fruit and vegetable: A Review. Journal of Food Process Technology, 4, 8.