Inheritance flowering time survay in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by generations mean analysis

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former Ph.D. Student, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Instructor, Vegetable Research Center, Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extention Organization, Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

5 Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran


One of the effects of climate change and global warming, on leafy vegetables production, is bolting. The four parental lines derived from Iranian lettuce landrace of Shirazi, Zeareei and Siah with difference in flowering time crosses between each pair and F1, F2, BC1p1 and BC1p2 generations were obtained. Transplants were planted in two separate experiments in a randomized complete block design with three replications and flowering time, head weight, number of leaves and leaf length of biggest outer leaf were recorded. Generation mean analysis showed that in all traits additive dominant model was inadequate and other factors such as epistasis is effective in controlling interested traits. The effect of additive is significant but the effect of dominance is much greater than it. The additive × additive effects and dominance× dominance effects on traits have been effective. To determine the number of effect factors at the flowering time of the F2 segregation and two genes involved in controlling flowering time were confirmed. Results showed that late flowering lines of the Siah and Zeareei landrace produced better quality and quantity head than early flowering lines of Shirazi landrace. Thus flowering time, leaf number and head weight had positive correlation. It is expected that selected genotypes with late flowering time had good potential for this important traits and should be used in breeding programs.


  1. Bremer, A. H. (1931). Effect of Daylength on the Growth Stages of Lettuce. Genetic Investigations. I.  Gartenbauwissenschaft, 4, pp.479-483.
  2. Bremer, A. H. & Grana, J. (1935). Genetic Investigations with Lettuce. II. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 9, 231-245.
  3. Cavalli, L. L. (1952). An analysis of Linkage in Quantitative Inheritance. In Quantitative inheritance. Papers read at a colloquium held at the Institute of Animal Genetics Edinburgh University under the auspices of the Agricultural Research Council April 4th to 6th, 1950. (pp. 135-44). HM Stationery Office.
  4. Corbesier, L. & Coupland, G. (2005). Photoperiodic Flowering of Arabidopsis: Integrating Genetic and Physiological Approaches to Characterization of the Floral Stimulus. Plant, Cell & Environment, 28(1), 54-66.
  5. Farshadfar, E. (1988). Application of Biometrical genetics in plant breeding. Vol. 1, Publications of theRazi University, Kermanshah. (in Farsi)
  6. Kim, Z. H. & Ryder, E. J. (2003). Inheritance of Days to Flowering in Lettuce. Journal-Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 44(1), 40-43.
  7. Lindqvist, K. (1960). Inheritance Studies in Lettuce. Hereditas, 46(3‐4), 387-470.
  8. Malhotra, R. S., Baum, M., Udupa, S. M., Bayaa, B., Kabbabe, S. & Khalaf, G. (2003). Ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea: Present status and future prospects. In: Proceedings of International chickpea congress: Chickpea Research for Millenium, 20-22 January, Raipur, India
  9. Mather, K. & Jinks, J. L. (1977). Introduction to biometrical genetics. (No. QH430. M37 1977.). London: Chapman and Hall.
  10. Rappaport, L. & Wittwer, S. H. (1956). Flowering in Head Lettuce as Influenced by Seed Vernalization, Temperature and Photoperiod. In Proc. American Society for Horticultural Science, 67, 429-437.
  11. Robinson, R. W., McCreight, J. D. & Ryder, E. J. (1983). The Genes of Lettuce and Closely Related Species. In. Plant breeding reviews .pp. 267-293. Springer US.
  12. Ryder, E. J. (1983). Inheritance, Linkage, and Gene Interaction Studies in Lettuce. Journal American Society for Horticultural Science, 108(6), 985-999.
  13. Ryder, E. J. (1985). Use of Early Flowering Genes to Reduce Generation Time in Backcrossing, with Specific Application to Lettuce Breeding. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 110(4), 570-573.
  14. Ryder, E. J. (1986). Breeding Vegetable Crops. Lettuce breeding. Westport: AVI, pp.433-474.
  15. Ryder, E. J. (1988). Early Flowering in Lettuce as Influenced by a Second Flowering Time Gene and Seasonal Variation. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 113, 456-460.
  16. Ryder, E. J. (1996). Ten Lettuce Genetic Stocks with Early Flowering Genes Ef-1ef-1 and Ef-2ef-2. HortScience: a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 31, 473-475
  17. Ryder, E. J. & Milligan, D. C. (2005). Additional Genes Controlling Flowering Time in Lactuca sativa and L. serriola. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 130(3), 448-453.
  18. Silva, E. C., Maluf, W. R., Leal, N. R. & Gomes, L. A. A. (1999). Inheritance of Bolting Tendency in Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Euphytica, 109(1), 1-7.
  19. Waycott, W., Ford, S. B. & Ryder, E. J. (1995). Inheritance of Dwarfing Genes in Lactuca sativa L. Journal of Heredity, 86(1), 39-44.