Effects of different levels of Calcium nitrate on some Morpho-physiological and nutritional traits of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.)

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Former M. Sc. Student, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 Managing Director of Sepahan Roish Co., Isfahan, Iran


This study was arranged in a completely randomized block design to investigate effects of four levels of calcium nitrate on the nutrition responses and growth characteristics of tomato plants. Treatments includedT0: control; T1: recommendations of calcium nitrate by Yara International (Soil application), 50 kg/ha for 8 weeks since the first week of fruit set and a total of 400 kg/ha; T2: calcium nitrate consumption based on soil test results and the requirements of tomatoes: 40 kg/ha in the first week of fruit set and a total of 320 kg/ha; and T3: the same as the previous treatment plus foliar application of calcium nitrate at 0.5%. Results showed that there were significant differences between tomato fruits regarding uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, dry matter, vitamin C, nitrate, potassium, and fruit firmness (P<0.05). The maximum values for uptakes of calcium, nitrogen and yield were obtained following T1 treatment (65, 85, and 45% higher than the control value, respectively). Regarding total nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium uptakes, and pH, there were no significant differences between T1, T2, and T3. Accordingly, 400 kg/ha (T1) calcium nitrate is recommended to obtain the best fruit yield and quality.


Main Subjects

  1. A.O.A.C. (1975). Official method of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. (12th ed.). Washington D.C.pp.377-378,777.
  2. Ali-Ehyaee, M., Behbahanizadeh, A.A. (1994). Soil analysis methods. Technical bulletin No. 893. Taat, Tehran, Iran.(in farsi)
  3. Amin Panah, H. & Sorooshzadeh, A. (2005). The effect of calcium nitrate of sodium and potassium distribution in seedlings of rice under saline conditions. Iranian Journal of Biology, 18(2), 92-100. (in Farsi)
  4. Azadi-Bougar, S. H. & Gharaghani, A. (2017). Effect of calcium and boron spray application on fruit’s quantitative and qualitative characteristics of ‘Golab-e Kohanz’ apple, Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 47(4), 811-822. (in Farsi)
  5. Baas, R., Marissen, N., Dik, A. (1998).  Cut rose quality as affected by Ca supply and translocation. Acta Horticulturae, 518: 45-54.
  6. Bremner, J. (1996). Nitrogen-total. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3-chemical methods, 1085-1121.
  7. Chao, L., Bofu, P., Weiqian, C., Yun, L., Hao, H., Liang, C., Xiaoqing, L., Xiao, W. & Fashui, H. (2008). Influences of calcium deficiency and cerium on growth of spinach plants. Biological Trace Element Research, 121 (3), 266-75.
  8. Dowlati, H. & Zomorrodi, S. (2004). Study of calcium chloride foliar application on the quality and physiological characteristics of two grape cultivars (Rish baba and ghezel ozom). Technical report of agronomy research (West Azerbaijan). (in Farsi)
  9. Esmaeli, H., Shafi, S. & Tafazzoli, A. (2012). Calcium nitrate and potassium sulphate foliar application towards reduce of physiological disorders of Kabkab date. In: Proceedings of the fist national conference and scientific festival of Iranian date. (in Farsi)
  10. Godarzi, K. (2001). Study and evaluate of nutrient element critical levels in grape by DRIS method, Final report of research project No. 81.743, TAAT, Iran. (in Farsi)
  11. Hamzehzad, K., Rabiei, V., Naseri, L. A. & Hemati, S. (2009).  Effect of UV-C Irradiation and CaCl2 Treatment on the Quality and Storage Life of Peach Fruit, Cv.Zafarany, Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 40 (4), 53-59. (in Farsi)
  12. Hashemi, H. (1991). Effect of nitrogen on quality and quantity of four tomatoes cultivar (Lycopersicon lycopersicum). M. Sc. thesis in horticultural science, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. (in farsi)
  13. Hocking, B., Tyerman, S. D., Burton, R. A. & Giliham, M. (2016). Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7.
  14. Jalini, M. & Doosti, F. (2012). Evaluation of nitrate accumulation in potato and tomato. Environmental Journal, 50, 62-71. (in Farsi)
  15. Kiyani, S., Malakouti, M. J., Tabatabaee, S. J. & Kafi, M. (2009). Effect of NH4/NO3 ratio and calcium on growth, concentration and quality of rose flower, Soil researches Journal, 23(1), 23-33. (in Farsi)
  16. Khajepour, M. R., Raesi, F. & Talaliyan, A. (1990). Effect of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers on concentration of these elements in potato and tomato. Agricultural Research Journal, 8(2), 101-112. (in Farsi)
  17. Khalaj, K., Ahmadi, N. & Souri, M. K. (2015). Effect of Calcium and Boron Foliar Application on Fruit Quality in Asian Pear Cultivar ‘KS10’. JCP, 4 (14), 89-97
    URL: http://jcpp.iut.ac.ir/article-1-2271-fa.html. (in Farsi)
  18. Kotsiras, A., Olympios, C. M., Drosopoulos, J. & Passam, H. C. (2002). Effects of nitrogen form and concentration on the distribution of ions within cucumber fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 95(3), 175-183.‏
  19. Majedi, M. (1995). Nutrient matter test methods, Jihad daneshgahi publication, 108 pp. (in Farsi)
  20. Malakouti, M. J., Nouri, A., Samavat, S. & Barirat, M. (2004). Nitrate accumulation in fruits and vegetables. Technical Bulletin No. 414. TAAT, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  21. Malakouti, M. J. & Rezaei, H. (2001). The roles of S, Ca & Mg on the improvement of yield and quality of agricultural products. Nashre Amozesh Keshavarzi Press, 181 pp. (in Farsi)
  22. Manaa, A., GHarbi, E., Mimouni, H., Wasti, S., ASchi-miti, S., Lutts, S. & Ben Ahmad, H. (2014). Simultaneous application of salicylic acid and calcium improves salt tolerance in two contrasting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar. South African Journal of Botany, 95, 32-39.
  23. Manganaris, G. A., Vasilakakis, M., Diamantidis M. & Mignani, I. (2006). The effect of postharvest calcium application, quality attributes incidence of flesh browning and cell wall physicochemical aspects of peach fruit. Food Chemistry, 18, 23-17.
  24. Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Academic Press. Ltd. London, 862.
  25. Prosba, B. U. (1996). The effects of nitrogen rates and planting dates on nitrate content in potato tubers. Biuletyn Instytutu Ziemniaka, 46, 73-81.
  26. Raese, F. & Khajehpour, M. R. (1992). Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on growth and yield of potato cv.cozima, Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(3 & 4), 37-48. (in Farsi)
  27. Ryan, J., Estefan, G. & Rashid, A. (2007). Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual: Icarda.
  28. Sahi, F. (2005). Soil introduce and pistachio nutrition. Iranian Pistachio Research Institute Publication. Rafsanjan, Iran. (in Farsi)
  29. Schroder, F. G. & Bero, H. (2001). Nitrate uptake of Lactuca sativa L. depending on varieties and nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Acta Horticulturae, 548, 551-556.
  30. Schroder, F. G. & Bero, H. (2001). Nitrate uptake of Lactuca sativa L. depending on varieties and nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Acta Horticulturae, 548, 551-556.
  31. Seedi-marghaki, A., Ebadi, A. & Babalar, M. (2014). Effect of potassium levels in nutrient solution, harvest season, and plant density on quantity and quality of strawberry fruit (Cv. Selva) in Hydroponic System Conditions. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 44(4), 423-429. (in Farsi)
  32.  Shabani Sangtarashani, E. & Tabatabaei, S. J. (2013). The effect of potassium concentration in nutrient solution on lycopene, vitamin C and qualitative characteristics of cherry tomato in saline conditions, Journal of Crop Procuction and Processing, 3(7), 133-143. (in Farsi)
  33. Shams, H., Naghdi-Abadi, H., Omidi, H., Rezazadeh, S., Soroushzadeh, A. & Sahandi, S. (2008). Effect of calsium nitrate foliar application on shoot growth of Borago officinalis, Journal of Medicinal Plants, 32, 138-144. (in Farsi)
  34. Singh, R., Sharma, R. R. & Tyagi, S. K. (2007). Pre-harvest foliar application of calcium and boron influences physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 112(2), 215-220.
  35. Souty, M., Reich, M., Breuils, L., Chambroy, Y., Jacquemin, G. & Audergon, J. M. (1995). Effects of postharvest calcium treatments on shelf-life and quality of apricot fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 384, 619-623.
  36. Sparks, D. L. (1996). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3-Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America Inc.
  37. Stephen, S., Miller, A. & Michael, G. (1985). Influence of Varius Rates of Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer and Soil Management on Young Apple Trees. Agricultural Reserch Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Application Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 110(2), 237-243.
  38. Varela, P., Salvador, A. &Fiszman, S. M. (2007). The use of chloride in minimally processed apples: A sensory approach. European Food Research Technology, 224, 461-467.