Elements distribution (K, Na & Cl) in some grapevine genotypes (Vitis vinifera L.) under salt stress

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former M. Sc. Student, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj, Iran


Salinity, as an abiotic stress, causes significant losses in horticultural production. Future of grape production, as one of the most important economical horticultural fruits, depends on breeding programs and using salt tolerant rootstocks. The aim of this study was to investigate the salinity tolerance and the distribution of ions associated with salinity in six genotypes and Varieties of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), namely ‘Shahrudi’, ‘Fakhri Sefid’, ‘Sabz Angur’, ‘Divaneh Kashmar’, SH068 and GT01.  The factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized design was carried out with two factors of variety and salinity in three replications. Plants were treated with different salinity levels of less than 2 (1.8-1.9), 4 and 6 dS/m for 40 days. Results showed that increasing the amount of sodium chloride in all genotypes, increased sodium and chloride levels in various organs and Potassium in shoot, while it decreased Potassium concentration in roots, significantly (P<0.05). GT01 presented the lowest concentration of chloride (0.87% and 1.84% of leaf and shoot dry weight, respectively). Overall, it seems that the GT01 and ‘Shahrudi’ had possess the highest and lowest ability in reducing the toxic effects of chloride, respectively. Results of this study confirmed differences between V. vinifera genotypes in response to salt stress.


  1. Blumwald, E., Aharon, G. S. & Apse, M. P. (2000). Sodium transport in plant cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1465(1), 140-151.
  2. Cramer, G. R., Ergül, A., Grimplet, J., Tillett, R. L., Tattersall, E. A., Bohlman, M. C., Vincent, D., Sonderegger, J., Evans, J. & Osborne, C. (2007). Water and salinity stress in grapevines: early and late changes in transcript and metabolite profiles. Functional & Integrative Genomics, 7(2), 111-134.
  3. Downton, W. (1977). Influence of rootstocks on the accumulation of chloride, sodium and potassium in grapevines. Crop and Pasture Science, 28(5), 879-889.
  4. Ehlig, C. (1960).Effects of salinity on four varieties of table grapes grown in sand culture. American Society for Horticultural Science, 76, 323-331.
  5. Fernandez, G.C. (1992). Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and Other Food Crops in Temperature and Water Stress (Ed., CG Kuo), 257-27.
  6. Fozouni, M., Abbaspour, N. & Dolati Baneh, H. (2012). Leaf water potential, photosynthetic pigments and compatible solutes alterations in four grape cultivars under salinity. Vitis, 51(3), 147-152.
  7. Garcia, M. & Charbaji, T. (1993). Effect of sodium chloride salinity on cation equilibria in grapevine. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 16(11), 2225-2237.
  8. Greenway, H. & Munns, R. (1980). Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 31(1), 149-190.
  9. Kishore, D., Pandey, R. & Singh, R. (1985). Effect of salt stress on growth characteristics of Perlette grapevines. Progressive  Horticulture, 17, 289-297.
  10. Maas, E. & Hoffman, G. (1977). Crop Salt Tolerance-Current Assessment. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, 103(2), 115-134.
  11. Marschner, H. & Marschner, P. (2012). Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press. (pp.426-484)
  12. Mohammadkhani, N., Heidari, R., Abbaspour, N. & Rahmani, F. (2013). Comparative study of salinity effects on ionic balance and compatible solutes in nine Iranian table grape (Vitis Vinifera L.) Genotypes. Journal international des sciences de la vigne et du vin= International Journal of Vine and Wine Sciences, 47(2), 99-114.
  13. Momeni, A. (2010). Geographical distribution and salinity levels of soil sources of  Iran. Iranian Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water Sciences), 24(3), 1-5. (in Farsi)
  14. Motsara, M. & Roy, R.N. (2008). Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (pp.134-160).
  15. Munns, R. & Tester, M. (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59, 651-681.
  16. Rao, K. M., Raghavendra, A. & Reddy, K. J. (2006). Physiology and molecular biology of stress tolerance in plants. Springer. (PP.51-128).
  17. Reuter, D. & Robinson, J. B. (1997). Plant analysis: an interpretation manual.(PP. 90-143) CSIRO Publishing.
  18. Shabala, S. & Munns, R. (2012). Salinity stress: physiological constraints and adaptive mechanisms. Plant Stress Physiology. CAB International, Oxford: 59-93.
  19. Walker, R., Torokfalvy, E., Scott, N. S. & Kriedemann, P. (1981). An analysis of photosynthetic response to salt treatment in Vitis vinifera. Functional Plant Biology, 8(3), 359-374.
  20. Walker, R. R., Blackmore, D. H., Clingeleffer, P. R. & Iacono, F. (1997). Effect of salinity and Ramsey rootstock on ion concentrations and carbon dioxide assimilation in leaves of drip-irrigated, field-grown grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sultana). Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 3(2), 66-74.
  21. Xu, G., Magen, H., Tarchitzky, J. & Kafkafi, U. (1999). Advances in chloride nutrition of plants. Advances in Agronomy, 68, 97-150.