Effect of different levels of superabsorbent and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative traits of gazania (Gazania hybrida) in green roof condition

Document Type : Full Paper


1 M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Iran


Regarding to Iran’s climate and water shortage problems and also low green space capitation, it is essential to use different methods to decrease water consumption in green roofs. Therefore, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in 2013 in research greenhouse complex roof of Shahrekord University using Gazania hybrida. The first factor consisted of vermicompost at three levels (0%, 4%, and 8%) and the second factor was conducted at four levels of superabsorbent (hydrogel) consisted of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 g/m3. Irrigation was considered based on water usage of control substrate. Four months after transplanting, measuring the flower diameter and the number of flowers were initiated. Also, other indices such as water use, dry and fresh weights of shoots and roots were measured and the results showed that vermicompost and hydrogel treatments not only resulted in less water consumption, but also improved plant vegetative and generative traits such as shoot fresh weight, flower number and diameter.


Main Subjects

  1. Ahmad Abadi, Z., Ghajar-Sepanlou, M. & Rahimi-Alashti, S. (2012). Effect of vermicompost on physical and chemical properties of soil. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 15(58), 125-137.
  2. Alizadeh A. (2009). Soil and plant water relations. Imam Reza University Publications. 483 pp. (in Farsi)
  3. Atiyeh, R. M., Lee, S., Edwards, C. A., Arancon, N. Q. & Metzger, J. D. (2002). The influence of humic acids derived from earthworms-processed organic wastes on plant growth. Bioresource Technology, 84, 7-14.
  4. Bahamir, S. (2014). Effect of different levels of vermicomposting and ferrous feeding on vegetative and reproductive traits of strawberry from Gaviota Species. MSc. Thesis on Architectural Science, Shahrekord University, Iran. (in Farsi)
  5. Bakhshi, R. & Khorsandi-Nikou, M. (2011). Providing some strategies for developing green roof in Iran based on sustainable development goals approach. 6th ultra-regional conference on new developments in science and engineering. May 14. Ayandegan Institute of Higher Education, Tonekabun, Iran. (in Farsi)
  6. Beatie, D. J. & Berghage, R. (2004). Green roof media characteristics: The basics. In: Proceedings of 2nd North American Green Roof Construction. Greening rooftops for sustainable communities. Portland. Cardinal Group, Toronto, pp. 411-416.
  7. Behbahani, M. R., Asadzadeh, A. & Jebelli, S. J. (2005). Assessing the effect of superabsorbent hydrogels and deficit irrigation treatments on maintenance of nutrients in hydroponic media. In: Proceedings of the 3rd training course and professional conference on superabsorbent hydrogels applications. Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. Tehran, Iran, pp34-51. (in Farsi)
  8. Borji, Sh., Khodadadi, M. & Mobasser, H. R. (2014). Effect of different levels of vermicompost on growth characteristics and flowering geranium. Journal of Novel Applied Science, 3(30), 307-309.
  9. El-Hady, O. A. & Wanas, S. A. (2006). Water and fertilizer use efficiency by cucumber grown under stress on sandy soil treated with acryl amide hydro gels. Journal of Applied Science Research, 2(12), 1293-1297.‏
  10. Farrell, C., Ang, X. Q. & Rayner, J. P. (2013). Water- retention additives increase plant available water in green roof substrates. Ecological Engineering, 52, 112-118.
  11. Friedrich, C. R. (2005). Principles for selecting the proper component for a green roof growing media. In: Proceedings of 3rd North Amer. Green Roof Conf.: Greening rooftops for sustainable communities. Washington D.C., Cardinal Group, Toronto, p. 262-273.
  12. Johnson, M. S. & Leah, R. L. (1990). Effects of superabsorbent polyacrylamids on efficiency of water use by crop seedling. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 52, 431-434.
  13. Kianian, M. K. & Cheshmberah, F. (2012). Investigation of superabsorbent role at rainwater absorption in arid and semi lands soils with the aim of sustainable development. In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Policies toward Sustainable Development, Tehran. (in Farsi)
  14. Mahfouz, S. A. & Sharaf-Eldin, M. A. (2007). Effect of mineral V.S. biofertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics, 21(4), 361-366.
  15. Orzolek, M. D. (1993). Use of hydrophilic polymers in horticulture. HortTechnology, 3(1), 41-44.
  16. Razavian, M. T., Ghafuripur, A. & Razavian, M. (2010). Green Roofs. Geographical Journal of Environmental Logistics, 10, 137-160. (in Farsi)
  17. Ouchi, S., Nishikawa, A. & Kamada, E. (1990). Soil improving effect of a super–water absorbent polymer (part2) evaporation, leaching of salts and growth of vegetables. Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 61(6), 606-613.
  18. Revenga, C. (2000). Will there be enough water? In: Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Freshwater Systems, October, University of Michigan, USA, pp. 1-6.
  19. Roy Aunachalam, K., Kumar, D. B. & Arunachalam, A. (2010). Effect of organic amendments of soil on growth and productivity of three common crops viz. Zea mays. Phaseolus vulgaris and Abelmoschus esculentus. Applied Soil Ecology, 45, 78-84.
  20. Saha, S., Mina, B. L., Gopinath, K. L., Kundu, S. & Gupta, H. S. (2008). Relative changes in phosphatase activities as influenced by source and application rate of organic compost in field crops. Bioresource Technology, 99(6), 1750-1757.
  21. Sanei-shariatpanahi, M. & Babazade Darjazy, B. (2009). Breeding, maintenance and propagation of outdoor plants. Sepehr Publications. (in Farsi)
  22. Savi, T., Marin, M., Boldrin, D., Incerti, G., Andri, S. & Nardini, A. (2014). Green roofs for a drier world: Effect of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status. Science of the Total Environment, 490, 467-476.
  23. Shadanpour, F., Mohammadi Torkashvand, A. & Hashemi-Majd, K. (2011). The effect of cow manure vermicompost as the planting medium on the growth of Marigold. Annals of Biological Research, 2(6), 109-115.
  24. Soler-Rovira, J., Usano-Martinez, M.C., Fuentez-Priet, I., Arroyo-Sanz, J. M. & Gonzalez-Torres, F. (2006). Retention and availability of different soils amended with superabsorbent hydrogels. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium SOPHYWA (Soil Physics and Rural Water Management), 28–29 Sep., Vienna, Austria, pp 7-10.
  25. Tabrizi, F. (2013). Green Roofs. 2013. Series of Journals of Isfahan Parks Organization, 42, 34-36. (in Farsi)
  26. Tomati, U., Grappelli, A. & Galli, E. (1995). The hormone-like effect of earthworm casts on plant growth. Biology Fertility Soils, 5, 288-294.
  27. Zangooie Nasab, Sh., Emami, H., Astaraie, A. & Yari, A. (2013). Effects of stockosorb hydrogel and irrigation intervals on some soil physical properties and growth of haloxylon seedling. Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 3(1), 167. (in Farsi)