The effect of two covering methods with waxed paper to inhibit chilling injury in Pomegranate ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ fruit during cold storage

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Ph. D. Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Iran

4 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


One of the most important limiting factors for Pomegranate fruit storing is chilling stress. Visible symptoms include fruit husk browning and arils paleness. During the recent years some researches have been done to study and inhibit the phenomenon. In this research the efficacy of two fruit covering methods with waxed paper to inhibit chilling injury were compared with controls. Some of the fruits embedded in the paper strips and some others wrapped in the paper sheets. Uncovered fruits were as controls. Fruits were transferred to a cold storage with 5oC and 85% RH. Samplings were carried out in three weeks intervals for 12 weeks. Visual evaluations showed that fruits covering reduced husk browning significantly and maintained arils color brilliance. It was also found that covered fruits had much less ion leakage and hydrogen peroxide. Total analysis of the results showed that both covering methods had potential to control chilling damages in fruits different tissues. Therefore, both covering methods which are environmentally friendly are suitable for commercialization; however, wrapping the fruits in the paper sheets is placed in priority because of the better performance and lesser paper consumption.


  1. Alferez, F., Lluch, Y. & Burns, J. K. (2008). Phospholipase A2 and postharvest peel pitting in citrus fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 49(1), 69-76.
  2. Arbona, V., Manzi, M., Ollas, C. D. & Gomez-Cadenas, A. (2013). Metabolomics as a tool to investigate abiotic stress tolerance in plants. International journal of molecular sciences, 14(3), 4885-4911.
  3. Artes, F., Villaescusa, R. & Tudela, J. A. (2000). Modified atmosphere packaging of pomegranate. Journal of Food Science, 65(7), 1112-1116.
  4. Azene, M., Workneh, T. S. & Woldetsadik, K. (2014). Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit. Journal of food science and technology, 51(6), 1041-1055.
  5. Barman, K., Asrey, R., Pal, R. K., Kaur, C. & Jha, S. K. (2014). Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 111-117.
  6. Bergevin, M., Lheureux, G. P., Thompson, J. E. & Willemot, C. (1993). Effect of chilling and subsequent storage at 20oC on electrolyte leakage and phospholipid fatty acid composition of tomato pericarp. Physiologia Plantarum, 87(4), 522-527.
  7. Bligh, E. G. & Dyer, W. J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37(8), 911-917.
  8. Caleb, O. J. (2013). Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Pomegranate Arils. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
  9. Campos, P. S., nia Quartin, V., chicho Ramalho, J. & Nunes, M. A. (2003). Electrolyte leakage and lipid degradation account for cold sensitivity in leaves of Coffea sp. plants. Journal of plant physiology, 160(3), 283-292.
  10. Das, P. K., Shin, D. H., Choi, S. B. & Park, Y. I. (2012). Sugar-hormone cross-talk in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Molecules and Cells, 34(6), 501-507.
  11. Demidchik, V., Straltsova, D., Medvedev, S. S., Pozhvanov, G. A., Sokolik, A. & Yurin, V. (2014). Stress-induced electrolyte leakage: The role of K+-permeable channels and involvement in programmed cell death and metabolic adjustment. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(5), 1259-1270.
  12. Elyatem, S. M. & Kader, A. A. (1984). Post-harvest physiology and storage behaviour of pomegranate fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 24(3), 287-298.
  13. Fawole, O. A. & Opara, U. L. (2013). Effects of storage temperature and duration on physiological responses of pomegranate fruit. Industrial Crops and Products, 47, 300-309.
  14. Fraser, C. M. & Chapple, C. (2011). The phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis Book, 2011(9), doi:10.1199/tab.0152.
  15. Giusti, M. M. & Wrolstad, R. E. (2001). Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV‐visible spectroscopy. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, 2001, doi:10.1002/0471142913.faf0102s00.
  16. Gonzalez-Aguilar, G. A., Fortiz, J., Cruz, R., Baez, R. & Wang, C. Y. (2000). Methyl jasmonate reduces chilling injury and maintains postharvest quality of mango fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(2), 515-519.
  17. Hansen, J. & Moller, I. B. (1975). Percolation of starch and soluble carbohydrates from plant tissue for quantitative determination with anthrone. Analytical Biochemistry, 68(1), 87-94.
  18. Huelin, F. E. & Coggiola, I. M. (1968). Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. IV: Effect of variety, maturity, oiled wraps and diphenylamine on the concentration of a‐farnesene in the fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 19(6), 297-301.
  19. Idah, P. A., Musa, J. J. & Abdullahi, M. (2010). Effects of storage period on some nutritional properties of orange and tomato. AU J.T., 13(3), 181-185.
  20. Kader, A. A., Chordas, A. & Elyatem, S. (1984). Responses of pomegranates to ethylene treatment and storage temperature. California Agriculture, 38(7), 14-15.
  21. Kader, A. A., Zagory, D., Kerbel, E. L. & Wang, C. Y. (1989). Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 28(1), 1-30.
  22. Khan, D., Khan, R. A., Bibi, S., Ali, S. & Khalil, A. I. (2007). Storage stability of persimmon fruits (Diospuros kaki) stored in different packaging materials. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 2(2), 20-23.
  23. Khorshidi, M. & Abavisani, A. (2013). Effect of putrescine on dragonhead under low temperature. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5(20), 2454-2458.
  24. Khwaldia, K., Arab‐Tehrany, E. & Desobry, S. (2010). Biopolymer coatings on paper packaging materials. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9(1), 82-91.
  25. Lara, I., Belge, B. & Goulao, L. F. (2014). The fruit cuticle as a modulator of postharvest quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 87, 103-112.
  26. Lara, I., Belge, B. & Goulao, L. F. (2015). A focus on the biosynthesis and composition of cuticle in fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(16), 4005-4019.
  27. Laribi, A. I., Palou, L., Taberner, V. & Perez-Gago, M. B. (2012). Modified atmosphere packaging to extend cold storage of pomegranate cv. Mollar de Elche.
  28. Lee, S. H., Singh, A. P. & Chung, G. C. (2004). Rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in cucumber roots due to exposure to low temperature appears to mediate decreases in water transport. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(403), 1733-1741.
  29. Le Gall, H., Philippe, F., Domon, J. M., Gillet, F., Pelloux, J. & Rayon, C. (2015). Cell wall metabolism in response to abiotic stress. Plants, 4(1), 112-166.
  30. Lo Piero, A. R., Puglisi, I., Rapisarda, P. & Petrone, G. (2005). Anthocyanins accumulation and related gene expression in red orange fruit induced by low temperature storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(23), 9083-9088.
  31. Mao, L., Pang, H., Wang, G. & Zhu, C. (2007). Phospholipase D and lipoxygenase activity of cucumber fruit in response to chilling stress. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 44(1), 42-47.
  32. Mandal, C., Ghosh, N., Adak, M. K. & Dey, N. (2013). Interaction of polyamine on oxidative stress induced by exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide in Salvinia natans Linn. Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology, 25(3), 223-230.
  33. Marsh, K. & Bugusu, B. (2007). Food packaging: roles, materials, and environmental issues. Journal of Food Science, 72(3), 39-55.
  34. McCollum, T. G. & McDonald, R. E. (1991). Electrolyte leakage, respiration, and ethylene production as indices of chilling injury in grapefruit. HortScience, 26(9), 1191-1192.
  35. Miguel, G., Fontes, C., Antunes, D., Neves, A. & Martins, D. (2004). Anthocyanin concentration of ‘Assaria’ pomegranate fruits during different cold storage conditions. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2004(5), 338-342.
  36. Mirdehghan, S. H. & Rahemi, M. (2002). Reduction of chilling injury in the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits by intermittent warming. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 33(1), 75-80. (in Farsi)
  37. Mirdehghan, S. H. & Rahemi, M. (2005). Effect of hot water treatment on reducing chilling injury of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit during storage. Acta Horticulturae, 682, 887-892.
  38. Mirdehghan, S. H. & Rahemi, M. (2010). Determination of time of chilling injury occurrence in pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) during cold storage.  Iranian Journal of Horticultural science, 41(1), 11-18. (in Farsi)
  39. Mohammadrezakhani, S. & Pakkish, Z. (2015). Reduction of chilling injury and peroxide hydrogen accumulation in Thompson grape (Vitis vinifera L.) fruit by proline and ascorbic acid during storage. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding, 5(1), 1-12.
  40. Nunes, M. C. N. & Emond, J. P. (2007). Relationship between weight loss and visual quality of fruits and vegetables. In: Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 120, 235-245.
  41. Page, T., Griffiths, G. & Buchanan-Wollaston, V. (2001). Molecular and biochemical characterization of postharvest senescence in broccoli. Plant Physiology, 125(2), 718-727.
  42. Petrov, V. D. & Van Breusegem, F. (2012). Hydrogen peroxide: A central hub for information flow in plant cells. AoB Plants, 2012: 1-13.
  43. Rab, A., Haq, S., Khalil, S. A. & Ali, S. G. (2010). Fruit quality and senescence related changes in sweet orange cultivar Blood red unipacked in different packing materials. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 26, 221-227.
  44. Rahemi, M. & Mirdehghan, S. H. (2004). Effects of temperature conditioning on reducing chilling injury in pomegranate fruits during storage. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 61(4), 345-347.
  45. Ramezanian, A., Rahemi, M., Maftoun, M., Bahman, K., Eshghi, S., Safizadeh, M. R. & Tavallali, V. (2010). The ameliorative effects of spermidine and calcium chloride on chilling injury in pomegranate fruits after long-term storage. Fruits, 65(3), 169-178.
  46. Rashidi, M., Bahri, M. H., Naserzaeim, F., Abdi, J. & Ahmadbeyki, A. (2014). Wrapping materials and cold storage durations effect on water content of plum. Agricultural Engineering Research Journal, 4(3), 65-68.
  47. Riederer, M. & Schreiber, L. (2001). Protecting against water loss: Analysis of the barrier properties of plant cuticles. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52(363), 2023-2032.
  48. Roberts, J. D. & Caserio, M. C. (1977). Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry (2th Ed.). WA Benjamin, Inc.
  49. Roy, R., Rahim, M. A. & Alam, M. S. (2012). Effect of wrapping papers on physiological changes and shelf-life of mango cv. Langra. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources, 4(2), 99-103.
  50. Sayyari, M., Babalar, M. & S. Kalantari, (2010a). The effect of pre-storage application of calcium chloride on chilling resistance and calcium concentration of pomegranate fruits. Acta Horticulturae, 868, 367-372.
  51. Sayyari, M., Babalar, M., Kalantari, S., Serrano, M. & Valero, D. (2009). Effect of salicylic acid treatment on reducing chilling injury in stored pomegranates. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 53(3), 152-154.
  52. Sayyari, M., Castillo, S., Valero, D., Diaz-Mula, H. M. & Serrano, M. (2011). Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling injury and maintains nutritive and bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during postharvest storage of pomegranates. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 60(2), 136-142.
  53. Sayyari, M., Valero, D., Babalar, M., Kalantari, S., Zapata, P. J. & Serrano, M. (2010b). Pre-storage oxalic acid treatment maintained visual quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant potential of pomegranate after long-term storage at 2oC. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(11), 6804-6808.
  54. Shahnawaz, M., Sheikh, S. A., Soomro, A. H., Panhwar, A. A. & Khaskheli, S. G. (2012). Quality characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) stored in various wrapping materials. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(5), 123-128.
  55. Sharma, P., Jha, A. B., Dubey, R. S. & Pessarakli, M. (2012). Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of Botany, 2012, doi:10.1155/2012/217037.
  56. Sudheer, K. P. & Indira, V. (2007). Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. New India Publishing.
  57. Tcherkez, G., Nogues, S., Bleton, J., Cornic, G., Badeck, F. & Ghashghaie, J. (2003). Metabolic origin of carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 in French bean. Plant Physiology, 131(1), 237-244.
  58. Thomson, D. L. (1928). The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the permeability of the cell. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 5(3), 252-257.
  59. Ubani, O. N. & Okonkwo, E. U. (2011). A review of shelf-life extension studies of Nigerian indigenous fresh fruits and vegetables in the Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute. African Journal of Plant Science, 5(10), 537-546.
  60. Whitaker, B. D. (2012). Membrane lipid metabolism and oxidative stress involved in postharvest ripening, senescence, and storage disorders of fruits. Acta Horticulturae, 945, 269-282.
  61. Whitaker, B. D. (2013). Genetic and biochemical bases of superficial scald storage disorder in apple and pear fruits. Acta Horticulturae, 989, 47-60.
  62. Whitaker, B. D. & Lester, G. E. (2006). Cloning of phospholipase Dα and lipoxygenase genes CmPLDa1 and CmLOX1 and their expression in fruit, floral, and vegetative tissues of Honey Brew hybrid Honeydew melon. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 131(4), 544-550.
  63. Wills, R. B., Bailey, W. M. & Scott, K. J. (1975). Possible Involvement of α-Farnesene in the Development of Chilling Injury in Bananas. Plant Physiology, 56(4), 550-551.
  64. Zhao, Y. Y., Qian, C. L., Chen, J. C., Peng, Y. & Mao, L. C. (2010). Responses of phospholipase D and lipoxygenase to mechanical wounding in postharvest cucumber fruits. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 11(6), 443-450.