Evaluation of morphological diversity of Fritillaria (Fritillaria imperialis L.) in five regions of Lorestan province

Document Type : Full Paper


1 M. Sc. Student, of Horticulture Science, University of Lorestan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, University of Lorestan, Iran

3 Research Instructor, Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research, Iran


In order to study of genetic diversity of Fritillaria populations (Fritillaria imperialis L.), in the five regions of Lorestan Province, used 40 morphological characteristics. Generally, 140 samples from five regions of the three cities including: Khorramabad, Aligudarz and Dorud were collected and analyzed in spring 2014 and 2015 for two years. From each area 30 samples were studied. These results showed that there is significant difference between populations of morphological characteristics. The results of cluster analysis using Ward method and Euclidean distance grouped the samples to five populations. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) results, there were 10 factors that explained 85.34 % of their biological variations. In the first component, threre was positive and high coefficient in length of upper and middle leaf. The classification of cluster analysis was confirmed by principal component analysis. According to this study morphological traits can apply to assess variation among populations of Fritillaria.


  1. Press, p. 330. (in Farsi)
  2. Azarkish, P. (2014). Evaluation of Morphological and Phytochemical Diversity of Some Ecotypes of Horse Mint (Mentha longifolia L.) in the South West of Iran. MSc. Thesis Ferdowsi Univesity of Mashhad Faculty of Agriculture.
  3. Celebi, A., Texen, M., Acik, L. & Aytac, Z. (2006). Taxonomic relationships in genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae): Evidence from RAPD-PCR and SDS PAGE of seed proteins. Acta Botanica Hungarica, 50, 325-343.
  4. Chang, C. S., Choi, D. Y., Kim, H., Kim, Y. S. & Park, T. Y. (2007). Genetic diversity and mating system of the threatened plant Kirengeshoma palmata (Saxifragaceae) in Korea. Journal of Plant Research, 120, 149-156.
  5. Chang, C. S., Kimi, H. & Park, T. Y. (2003). Patterns of allozyme diversity in several selected rare species in Korea and implications for conservation. Biodiversity and conservation, 12, 529-544.
  6. Fares, K., Guasmi, F., Touil, L., Triki, T. & Ferchichi, A. (2009). Genetic diversity of Pistachio tree using Inter-Simple Sequence markers (ISSR) supported by morphological and chemical markers. Biotechnology, 8(1), 24-34.
  7. Farshadfar, A. S. (1998). The application of quantitative genetics in plant breeding. Publications Taq-e Bostan, Razi University, the first volume. (in Farsi)
  8. Gong, W., Gu, L. & Zhang, D. (2010). Low genetic diversity and high genetic divergence caused by inbreeding and geographical isolation in the populations of endangered species Loropetalum subcordatum (Hamamelidaceae) endemic to China. Conservation Genetics, 11, 2281-2288.
  9. Hoseini, A. (2014). Evaluation the ornamental potential and germination of several species endemic Alliums (Allium spp.) in climate of Mashhad. M.Sc. Thesis Ferdowsi Univesity of Mashhad Faculty of Agriculture. (in Farsi)
  10. Kiani, M., Zamani, Z., Khalighi, A., Fatahi, R. & Kiani, M. R. (2010). Collection and evaluation of morphological diversity of Rosa damascena Mill. Genotypes. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 41(3), 223-233.
  11. Koohgard, M., Sheeran, B. & Mirakhorli, N. (2012). Genetic diversity between and within populations of Fritillaria (Fritillaria imperialis L.) Zagros using molecular markers RAPD, Modern Genetics, 7(4), 353-362. (in Farsi)
  12. Lombard, V., Baril, C. P., Dubreuil, P., Blouet, F. & Zhang, D. (2000). Genetic relationship and fingerprinting of rapeseed cultivars by AFLP consequences for varietal registration. Crop Science, 40, 1417-1425.
  13. Meamar-Moshrefi, M. (1997). Effects of plant growth regulators and environmental condition on growth development, propagation of bulb, and senescence of flower of fritillaria (Fritillaria imperialis L.). Ph.D. thesis in Horticulture. Tarbiat Modares Univesity. (in Farsi)
  14. Miles, L. M., Jeanne, A. M. & Robert, D. W. (1995). Provenance and progeny variation in growth and frost tolerance of Casuarina cunninghmiana in California, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 79, 161-171.
  15. Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, M., Khalighi, A., Naderi, A., Sardari, M. & Ebrahimie, E. (2007). Petal: a reliable explant for direct bulblet regeneration of endangered wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis L. Acta Physiologia Plantarum, 30, 395-399.
  16. Momeni, H. Sheeran, B. Khoddambashi, D. & Cheghamirza, K. (2013). Evaluation of genetic variation between species of fritillaria in the Zagros Mountains of Iran by using ISSR molecular markers and morphological traits, Horticultural Science's journal, 44(1): 61-72. (in Farsi)
  17. Nadeem, M. A., Rahman, A. U., Choundhary, M. I., Sener, B., Erdogan, I. & Tsuda, Y. (2002). New class of steroidal alkaloids from Fritillaria imperialis. Phytochemistry, 63, 115-122.
  18. Naghavi, M., Ghareyazi, B. and Hosseini Salekdeh, Gh. (2009). Molecular marker, Tehran university press. Fourth edit. Tehran Iran pp: 340. (in Farsi)
  19. Naroui Rad, M. R., Farzanju, M., Fanay, H. R., Arjmandy Nejad, R., Ghasemy, A. & Polshekane Pahlevan, M. R. (2006). Factor analysis to determine the genetic diversity and morphological characteristics of wheat cultivars in Sistan and Baluchestan. Research and Manufacturers in agriculture and horticulture, No. 73, pp. 50-57. (in Farsi)
  20. Persson, K. (1992). Liliaceae III. In: Rechinger K.H. (ed.) Flora Iranica. 170, 1-40. Graz: Akademische Druck-u-Verlagsanstalt.
  21. Qreh Yazy, B. (1996). Application of DNA markers in plant breeding. The fourth key Iranian Crop Science Congress Proceedings, 6(4), 328-380. (in Farsi)
  22. Rahman, A., Akhtar, M. N., Choudhary, M. I., Tsuda, Y., Sener, B., Khalid, A. & Parvez, M. (2002). New steroidal alkaloids from Fritillaria imperialis and their cholinesterase inhibiting activities. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 50, 1013-1016.
  23. Roldan-Ruiz, F. A., Galliland, T. J., Dubreuil, C., Dillman, C. & Lallemand, J. (2001). A comparative study of molecular and morphological methods of describing relationships between perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 103, 1161-1168.
  24. Singh, V. K., Upadhyay, P., Sinha, P., Mall, A. K., Jaiswal, S. K., Singh, A., Ellur, R. K., Biradar, S., Sundaram, R. M., Singh, S., Ahmed, I., Mishra, B., Singh, A. K. & Kole, C. (2011). Determination of genetic relationships among elite thermosensitive genic male sterile lines (TGMS) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) employing morphological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Journal of Genetics, 90, 11-19.
  25. Yamagishi, M., Nishioka, M. & Kondo, T. (2010). Phenetic diversity in the Fritillaria camschatcensis population grown on the Sapporo campus of Hokkaido University. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 6, 75-79.