The effect of nanocomposite containing zeolite Nanoparticles and some nutrients on the growth characteristics of African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha ‘Rhapsody Clementine’)

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran


A factorial experiment in completely randomized design with three replications was conducted to investigate the effects of nanocomposite containing zeolite nanoparticles and some nutrients on the growth characteristics of African violets. This experiment was run in Agriculture and Natural Resources College, Arak University, in 2015. African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) as a potted plant is sensitive to the method of irrigation. Water continuous contact to plant organs may be caused to rot the plant and appearance of white and yellow spots on leaves. The effect of Nanocomposite containing zeolite nanoparticles plus nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in four levels 0, 1, 2 and 3 grams per pot) and three irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days) on some morphological and physiological characteristics of African violet were investigated in this study. The results showed that nanocomposites in the highest level (three gram per pot) in addition to reducing the negative effects of deficit irrigation, increased the multiple absorption of phosphorus and potassium. Furthermore, increasing the morphological traits (length and width leaves, canopy, fresh weight and chlorophyll index) and decreasing of some physiological characteristics such as ion leakage, were observed, significantly.


  1. Abassi, F. (2007). Interaction effect of drought and salinity on the growth of two species Aeluropus logopoides and Aeluropus litttoralis. Journal of Islamic Azad University, 66, 138-121. (in Farsi)
  2. Abedini, A. & Sajedi, N. (2011). The impact on the percentage of superabsorbent polymer electrolyte leakage and remobilization wheat cultivars. Journal of agriculture (Research and development). 103: 140-146.  (in Farsi)
  3. Ahmed, O. H., Sumalatha, G. & Nik Mohamad, A. M. (2010). Use of zeolite in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus uptake and use efficiency. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 15, 2393-2401.  
  4. Arndt, S. K. K., Clifford, S.C., Wanek, W., Jones, H. G. & Popp, M. (2001). Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress. Tree Physiology, 21, 705-715.
  5. Bajpai, A. K. & Giri, A. (2003). Water sorption behavior of highly swelling (Carboxy methylcellulose-g-polyacrylamide) hydrogels and release of potassium nitrate as agrochemical. Carbohydrate Polymers, 53, 271 -279.
  6. Baker, J. P., Blanch, H. W. & Prausnitz, J. M. (1995). Swelling properties of acrylamide-based ampholytic hydrogels: comparison of experiment with theory. Polymer, 36, 1061-1069.
  7. Bernardi, A. C., Souza, G. B. D., Polidoro, J. C., Paiva, P. R. & Mello, M. B. D. (2011). Yield quality components and nitrogen levels of silage corn fertilized with urea and zeolite. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 1-10.
  8. Blum, Z. A. & Ebercon, A. (1981). Cell membrane stability as a measure of drought and heat tolerance in wheat. Crop Sciences, 21, 43-47.
  9. Creus, C. M., Sueldo, R. J. & Barrasi, C. A. (2004). Water relation in Azospirillum inoculated wheat seedling under osmotic Stress. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 238-244.
  10. Dole, J. M. & Wilkins, H. F. (1999). Floiculture: principles and species. Prentice Hall Pub, Washington, USA. pp: 508-513. 
  11. Ebadi koupayi, G. & Sohrab, F. (2004). Assess the impact of superabsorbent polymers based on three types of soil water holding capacity and potential. Journal of Polymer Science and Technology, 17(3), 173-163. (in Farsi)
  12. Fazeli Rostampour, M., Yarnia, M. & Rahimzadeh Khoee, F. (2012). Effect of polymer and irrigation regimes on dry matter yield and several physiological traits of forage sorghum. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(48), 10834-10840.
  13. Gehring, J. M. & Lewis, A. J. (1980). Effect of hydrogel of wilting and moisture stress of Bedding plants. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 105, 511-513.
  14. Ghasemi, M. & Khoshkoi, M. (2007). Effect of Super Absorbent Polymer on irrigation and plant growth and development of David. Iranian Horticultural Science and Technology, 82, 65-65. (in Farsi)
  15. Guo, Z., Lu, W. & Zhang, Q. (2006). Differential responses of antioxidative system to chilling and drought in four rice cultivars differing in sensivity. Plant Physiology Biochemistry, 44, 828-836.
  16. Hildrum, H. & Kristoffersen, A. (1969). The effect of temperature and light intensity on flowering in Saintpaulia ionantha. Acta Horticulturae, 14, 249-255.
  17. Hsiao, T. C. (1973). Plant response to water stress. Plant Physiology, 24, 516-570.
  18. Joner, E. J., Van Aarle, I. M. & Vosatka, M. (2000). Phosphatase activity of extra-radical arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae: a review. Plant Soil, 226, 199-210.
  19. Karadag, E., Uzum, O. B., Saraydin, D. & Guven, O. (2007). Swelling Characterization of gamma radiation induced crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels in urea solutions. Material and Design, 576-584.
  20. Lichtenthaler, H. K. & Welburn, A. R. (1983). Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical society transactions. 11: 591-592.
  21. Liu, J., Du, X., Sun, J. & Bai, X. (2008). Effect of simultaneous drought and heat stress on Kentucky bluegrass. Scientia Horticultrae, 115, 190-195.
  22. Mithila, J., Hall, J. C., Victor, J. M. R. & Saxena, P. K. (2003). Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high  concentrations  on  leaf  and  petiole  explants  of  African  violet  (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Plant Cell Report, 21, 408-414.
  23. Montesano, F., Parente, A., Santamaria, P., Sannino, A. & Serio, F. (2015). Biodegradable Superabsorbent Hydrogel Increases Water Retention Properties of Growing Media and Plant Growth. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 4, 451-458.
  24. Najafi Alishah, F., Golchin, A. & Mohebi, M (2013). Effects of super absorbent polymers Akoasorb and irrigation on yield, water use efficiency and growth indices greenhouse cucumber. Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 4(15), 13-1. (in Farsi)
  25. Naseri, M., Khalatbari, M. & Paknejad, F. (2012). Evaluation the effect of different ranges Zeolite consuming on yield and yield component and physiological characteristics of grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Var. Kimiya under water deficit stress. Annals of Biological Research, 3, 3547-3550.
  26. Pagter, M., Bragato, C. & Brix, H. (2005). Tolerance and physiological responses of Phragmites australis to water deficit. Aquatic Botany, 81, 285-299.
  27. Rennenberg, H., Loreto, L., Polle, A., Brilli, F., Fares, S., Beniwal, R. S. & Gessler, A. (2006). Physiological responses of forest trees to heat and drought. Journal of Plant Biology, 8, 556-571.
  28. Schexnailder, P. & Schmidt, G. (2009). Polymer nanocomposite hydrogels. Colloid Polymer Sciences, 287, 1-11.
  29. Solgi, M. & Taghizadeh, M. (2015). Disinfection of African violet In vitro culture by using silver nanoparticles by plant extracts. Journal Processing of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, 17, 357-349. (in Farsi)
  30. Still, S. M. (1976). Growth of sunny Mandalay chrysanthemums in hardwood bark amended media as affected by insolublized polyethyle ne oxide.  HortScience, 11, 483-484.
  31. Tango, A., Mahdavi, A. & Sayad, A. (2013). Effects of super absorbent polymers Akoasorb on growth, deployment and some physiological characteristics acacia tree (Acacia victoriae) under drought stress. Journal of Soil and Water (Agricultural Science and Technology), 28(5), 963-951. (in Farsi)
  32. Taylor, K. C. & Halfacre, R. G. (1986). The effect of hydrophylic polymer on media water retention and nutrient availability to Ligustrum lucidum. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 21, 1159-1161.
  33. Wang, Y. & Gregg, L. L. (1992). Hydrophilic polymers- Their response to soil amendments and effect on properties of a soilless potting mix. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 115, 943-948.