Effect of different levels of vermicompost and chemical fertilizer on the nutrient elements and alkaloids of fumitory (Fumaria vaillantii)

Document Type : Full Paper


Former M. Sc. Student, Sana Institute of Higher Education, Iran


Fumitory is an annual and herbaceous plant. Its active substances that mostly exist in aerial parts are including alkaloids such as fumaryn and Synaktyn, and also resins and mucilage. Vermicompost is a bio organic fertilizer which contains enzymes, bacteria, plant residues and animal manure. In this study an experiment was run as completely randomized design in three replications and five treatments. Treatments were including of control (No fertilizer), three levels of vermicompost (5, 15 and 30 percent) and chemical fertilizer (N:P:K, 20:20:20). After flowering of the plants, alkaloids were measured by HPLC using internal standard noscapine and external standard fumaric acid. The results showed significant effect of vermicompost on the amount of Fumitory alkaloids. The vermicompost treatment of 30 percent had the maximum and minimum amount of alkaloids, respectively. All micro and macro elements had significant differences in compared to control plants. The results indicated a positive effect of vermicompost on all the measured traits in this experiment. Totally, the use of agricultural inputs (organic and chemical) and favorable impact on yield and secondary metabolites of in this plant.


  1. Ahmad Abadi, Z., Ghajar Sepanlo, M. & Bhamanyar, M. H. (2010). The Effect of Sewage Sludge Application on the Amount of Microelements in Soil and Absorption in Medicinal Plant Borage. Journal of Water and Waste Water, 24(88). (in Farsi)
  2. Astaraei, A. (2006). Effect of municipal solid waste compost and vermicompost on yield and yield components of Plantago ovata. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatocic Plants, 3, 180-187. (in Farsi)
  3. Atiyeh, R. M., Arancon, N., Edwards, C. A. & Metzger, J. D. (2001). The influence of earth worm processed pig manure on the growth and productivity of marigolds. Bio resource Technology, 33, 13-18.
  4. Atiyeh, R. M., Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A. & Metzger, J. D. (2002). The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm processed organic wastes on plant growth. Bio resource Technology, 84, 7- 14.
  5. Barimani, M. (1998). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer at different stages of plant life Dracocephalum moldavica and its oil production. M.Sc. thesis, Plant Science. Faculty of Science, University of Tarbeit Modares. (in Farsi)
  6. Sallaku, G., Babaj, I., Kaciu, S. & Balliu, A. (2009). The influence of vermicompost on plant growth characteristics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under saline conditions. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 7(3-4), 869-872.
  7. Bremness, L. (1999). Herbs. Eyewitness Handbook, London, 176.
  8. Cavender, N. D., Atiyeh, R. M. & Knee, M. (2003). Vermicompost stimulates mycorrhizal colonization of roots of Sorghum bicolor at the expense of plant growth. Pedobiologia, 47, 85-89.
  9. Clarke, E. G. C. (1970). The forensic chemistry of alkaloids, in The Alkaloids Vol. XII, Manske, H. F. ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 514-590.
  10. Cottenie, A. (1980). Soil and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendation. FAO Soil Bulletin, Rome, 38, 21-32.
  11. Countney, R. G. & Mullen, G. J. (2008). Soil quality and barley growth as influenced by the land application of two compost types. Biosour Technol, 99, 2913-2918.
  12. Davazdah Emami, S. & Majnon Hosini, H. (2008). Cultivation and production of medicinal herbs and spices. (2nd ed.)Publishing and Printing Institute of Tehran University. (in Farsi)
  13. Darzi, M., Ghalavand, A. & Rejali, F. (2008). Effect of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and phpsphate biofertilizer application on flowing, biological yield and root colonization in fenel (Feoniculum vulgare). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 10(1), 88-109. (in Farsi)
  14. Dilmaghani, K. H., Fahimi, R., Khavari Nejad, R. & Hekmat Shoar, H. (2007). Comparison of tropane alkaloids species at different growth stages. (Hyouscyamos retculates L.) & (Hyouscyamos arachnoideus Pojark). Journal of Sciences (Islamic Azad University), 51-61. (in Farsi)
  15. Edwards, C. A. & Burrows, I. (1998). The potential of earthworm composts as plant growth media. In: Edwards CA, Neuhauser E (Eds), Earthworms in Wastes and Environmental.21-32.
  16. Ghahreman, A. (1995). Botanical base. Tehran University, 1: 480. (in Farsi)
  17. Graham, A. W. & Mcdonald, G. K. (2001). Effects of zinc on photosynthesis and yield of wheat under heat stress. In: Proceedings of the Australian agronomy conference, Australian society of agronomy. 15, 53-69.
  18. Horst, W. J., Schenk, M. K., Burkert, A., Classen, N., Flassa, H., Frommer, W. B. & Goldbach, H. (2006). The effect of bio-compost application on crop yield and nitrogen dynamic in soil. In Plant Nutrition, 92, 986-989.
  19. Kumawat, P. D., Jat, N. L. & Yadavi, S. S. (2006). Effect of organic manure and nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and economics of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 76, 226-229.
  20. Kursinszki, L., Sárközi, Á., Kéry, Á. & Szöke, É. (2006). Improved RP-HPLC method for analysis of isoquinoline alkaloids in extracts of Chelidonium majus. Chromatographia,63(13), S131-S135.
  21. Le Bayon, R. C. & Binet, F. (2006). Earthworms change the distribution and availability of phosphorous in organic substrates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38(2), 235-246.
  22. Maftoun, M., Moshiri, F., Karimian, N. & Ronaghi, A. M. (2005). Effects of two organic wastes in combination with phosphorus on growth and chemical composition of spinach and soil properties. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27(9), 1635-1651.
  23. Mamo, M., Rosen, C. J., Halbach, T. R. & Moncrief, J. F. (1998). Corn yield and nitrogen uptake in sandy soils amended with vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost. Production Agriculture, 11, 460-475.
  24. Matos, G. D. & Arrunda, M. (2003). Vermicompost as natural adsorbent for removing metal ions from laboratory effluents. Process Biochemistry, 39, 81-88.
  25. Maiza-Benabdesselam, F., Chibane, M., Madani, K., Max, H. & Adach, S. (2007). Determination of isoquinoline alkaloids contents in two Algerian species of Fumaria (Fumaria capreolata and Fumaria bastardi). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(21), 2487.
  26. Mohanty, S., Paikaray, N. K. & Rajan, A. R. (2006). Availability and uptake of phosphorus from organic manures in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) sequence using radio tracer technique. Geoderma, 133, 225-230.
  27. Moreno, J. L., Garcia, C., Hernandez, T. & Pascual, J. A. (1996). Transference of heavy metals from a calcareous soil amended with sewage-sludge compost to barley plants. Bioresource Technology, 55(3), 251-258.
  28. Orozco, F. H., Cegarra, J., Trujillo, L. M. & Roig, A. (1996). Vermicomposting of coffee pulp using the earthworm Eisenia fetida: Effects on C and N contents and the availability of nutrients. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 22, 162-166.
  29. Ojaghlo, F. (2007). Effect of inoculation with biofertilizers (Azotobacter and phosphorus fertilization) on growth, yield on Carthamus tinctorius L. MSc Thesis agriculture. Islamic Azad University of Tabriz. (in Farsi)
  30. Qupta, P.K. (2000). Soil, Plant, Water and Fertilizer Analysis. Agrobios (India).
  31. Padmavathiamma, P. K., Li, L. Y. & Kumari, U. R. (2008). An experimental study of vermi-biowaste composting for agricultural soil improvement. Bioresource Technology, 99(6), 1672-1681.
  32. Perez-Murcia, M. D., Moral, R., Moreno-Caselles, J., Perez-Espinosa, A. & Paredes, C. (2006). Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli. Bioresource technology, 97(1), 123-130.
  33. Pirasteh anoshe, H., Emam Y. & Jamali ramin, F. (2010). Comparison of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers on the growth, yield and oil content in different levels of drought stress. (Helianthus annuss L.). Journal of Agricultural Ecology, 2, 492-501. (in Farsi)
  34. Rowell, D. L. (1994). Soil science: methods and applications. Department of Soil Science, University of Reading.
  35. Ridvan, K. (2004). Cu and Zn accumulation in earth worm Lumbricus terrestrist in sewag sludge amended soil and fraction of Cu and Zn casts and surrounding. Soil Science, 22, 141-145.
  36. Sains, J., Tboada-Castro, M.T. & Vilarino, A. (1998). Growth, Mineral nutrition and Mycorrhiza colonization of red clover and cucumber plant grows in a soil amended with vermicompost and composted urban wastes. Plant and Soil, 205, 85-92.
  37. Senesi, N. (1989). Composted materials as organic fertilizers. Science of the Total Environment, 81, 521-542.
  38. Soumare, M., Tack, F. M. G. & Verloo, M. G. (2003). Effects of a municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilization on plant growth in two tropical agricultural soils of Mali. Bioresource technology, 86(1), 15-20.
  39. Shi-Wei, Z. & Fu-Zhen, H. (1991). The nitrogen uptake efficiency from 15 N labeled chemical fertilizers in the presence of earthworm manure (cast). In: Veeresh GK, Rajagopal D, Virkatamath CA (Eds), Advances in Management and Conservation of Soil Fauna. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, Bombay. Pp. 539-542.
  40. Tomati, U., Grappelli, A. & Galli, E. (1983). Fertility factors in earthworm humus. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Agricultural Environment. Prospects in Earthworm Farming. Publication Ministerodella Ricerca Scientifica e Technologia, Rome, pp. 49-56.
  41. Tomati, U., Grappelli, A. & Gall, E. (1987). The hormone-like effect of earthworm castson plant growth. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 5, 288-294.
  42. Tandon, H. L. S. (2005). Methods of analysis of soils, plants, waters, fertilisers & organic manures. Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organisation.
  43. Zaller, J. G. (2007). Vermicompost as a substitute for peat in potting media: Effects on germination, biomass allocation, yields and fruit quality of three tomato varieties. Scientia Horticulturae, 112(2), 191-199.
  44. Zargari, A. (1998). Medicinal herbs. Tehran University Press. 2nd edition. 407. (in Farsi)