Optimization of in vitro micropropagation protocol for some vigorous rootstocks of pear

Document Type : Full Paper


Assistant Professor of Department of Horticulture, Ilam University


In order to micropropagate of four vigorous rootstocks of pear, including Pyrus betulifolia, Konjuni, Dargazi and Gh1, effects of basic plant culture media (MS, QL and modified QL), cytokinins and auxins on productivity, proliferation and rooting were studied in Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj. The highest amount of productivity for all rootstocks was observed in QL medium. Among pear rootstocks, Gh1 rootstock in both QL and modified QL mediums showed proper growth. Results of proliferation (BAP with 1 and 2 mg/l and 2ip at 0, 1 and 2 mg/l) illustrated that the highest amount of proliferation was achieved with 1 mg/l BAP, while adding 2ip into medium had no significant influence on proliferation rate. In addition, maximum rooting percentage was obtained by IBA at 1 mg/l. Also, evaluation of rooting percentage in both culture media containing agar and perlite proved that the highest rooting of all rootstocks (except P. betulifolia) was achieved in culture medium containing perlite. In general, to succeed micropropagation of aforementioned rootstocks, utilizing QL culture medium containing BAP (1 mg/l) is recommended for optimal proliferation and treatment of IBA (1 mg/l) in perlite is suitable for proper rooting.


  1. Abdollahi, H., Muleo, R., & Rugini, E. (2005).Study of basal growth media, growth regulators and pectin effects on micropropagation of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars. Seed and Plant, 21, 373-384. (in Farsi)
  2. Baviera, J. A., Garcia, J. L. & Ibarra, M. (1989). Commercial  in vitro micropropagation of pear cv. Conference. Acta Horticulturae, 256, 63-68.
  3. Bell, R. L., Quamme, H. A., Layne, R. E. C. & Skirvin, R. M. (1996). Pears. In: Janick, J. & Moore, J.N. (Eds.), Fruit breeding I, Tree and Tropical Fruits. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 441-514.
  4. Bell, R. L., Scorza, R. & Lomberk, D. (2012). Adventitious shoot regeneration of pear (Pyrus spp.) genotypes. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 108, 229-236.
  5. Berardi, G., Infante, R. & Neri, D. (1992). Micropropagation of Pyrus calleryana Dcn. From seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae, 53, 157-165.
  6. Caboni, E., Angeli, S. D., Chiappetta, A., Innocenti, A. M., Van Onckelen, H. & Damiano, C. (2002). Adventitious shoot regeneration from vegetative shoot apices in pear and putative role of cytokinin accumulation in the morphogenetic process. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 70,199-206.
  7. Dehghani, B., Arzani, K., & Malakouti, M. J. (2011). Fruit mineral removal rates from Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd) orchards.7th Congress of Iranian Horticultural Science (Abstract). (in Farsi)
  8. Denisy, Y., Yeo, B. & Reed, M. (1999).Micro-propagation of Pyrus rootstocks. HortScience, 30, 620-623.
  9. Dolcet-Sanjuan, R., Mok, D. W. & Mok, M. C. (1990). Micropropagation of Pyrus and Cydonia and their responses to Fe-limiting conditions. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture, 21, 191-199.
  10. Jackson, D., Looney, N. E., & Morley-Bunker, M. (2011). Temperate and subtropical fruit production. CABI.  pp. 1-311.
  11. Janick, J. (2002). The pear in history, literature, popular culture, and art. Acta Horticulturae, 596, 41-42.
  12. Javadi, S., Kermani, M., Irian, S. & Majd, A. (2013). Indirect regeneration from in vitro grown leaves of three pear cultivars and determination of ploidy level in regenerated shoots by flow cytometry. Scientia Horticulturae, 164, 455-460.
  13. Kadota, M. & Niimi, Y. (2003).Effects of cytokinin types and their concentration on shoot proliferation and hyperhydricity in in vitro pear cultivar shoots. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Culture, 72, 261-265.
  14. Kadota, M., Imizu, K. & Hirano, T. (2001). Double-phase in vitro culture using sorbitol increases shoot proliferation and reduces hyperhydricity in Japanese pear. Scientia Horticulturae, 89, 207-215.
  15. Khodaei-Chegeni, F., Abdollahi. H., Ershadi, A. & Asnaashari, M. (2011). Determination of micro-propagation protocol for OH × F333 and OH × F69 pear clonal rootstocks. Seed and Plant, 27, 297-312. (in Farsi)
  16. Leblay, C., Chevreau, E. & Robin, L.M. (1991). Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaves of several pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 25, 99-105.
  17. Moretti, C., Scozzoli, A., Passini, D. & Pagannelli, F. (1991). In vitro propagation of pear cultivars. Acta Horticulturae, 300, 115-122.
  18. Muleo, R., Morini, S. & Casano, S. (2001). Photoregulation of growth and branching of plum shoots physiological action of two photosystems. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 37, 609-617.
  19. Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473-497.
  20. Nosrati, S. Z., Zamani, Z. & Babalar, M. (2009). Micropropagation of four cultivars (Dargazi, Natanzi, Shahmiveh and Williams) of pear (Pyrus communis L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 40, 83-91. (in Farsi)
  21. Previati, A., Darei, F., Bassi, D., Tagliavini, M. & Marangoni, B. (2002). Development of protocols for in vitro propagation of advanced selections of Pyrus communis rootstocks 69BIS. Acta Horticulturae, 596, 505-508.
  22. Quoirin, M. & Lepoivre, P. (1977). Improved medium for in vitro culture of Prunus sp. Acta Horticulturae, 78, 437-442.
  23. Roozban, M. R., Arzani, K., & Moieni, A. (2002). Study on in vitro propagation of some Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) cultivars. Seed and Plant, 18, 348-361. (in Farsi)
  24. Saadat, Y. A., Rasti, O. & Zamani, J. (2012). Effects of different growth regulators, nutrient media, gelling agents and carbohydrate sources on shoot multiplication of Pyrus glabra Boiss. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 20, 83-96. (in Farsi)
  25. Sabeti, H. (1994). Trees and Shrubs of Iran. Yazd University Publications. (in Farsi)
  26. Sedlak, J. & Paprstein, F. (2008). In vitro shoot proliferation of sweet cherry cultivars Karesova and Rivan. Hortscince, 35, 95-98.
  27. Singha, S., Oberly, G. H. & Townsend, E. C. (1987). Changes in nutrient composition and pH of the culture medium during in vitro shoot proliferation of crabapple and pear. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 11, 209-220.
  28. Sun, Q., Sun, H., Bell, R.L. & Xin, L. (2009). Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on in vitro rooting capacity of shoots in pear clones (Pyrus communis L.) of different ploidy. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 99, 299-304.
  29. Vinterhalter, D. & Vinterhalter, B.S. (1997). Micropropagation of Dracaena sp. In: Bajaj Y. P. S. (Eds.), Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry 40, High-tech. and Micropropagation VI. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, pp. 131-146.