Investigation of Cold-hardiness in some Grapevine cultivars and its Relation to Bud Necrosis

Document Type : Full Paper



This research was carried out to investigate the cold-hardiness of grapevine buds in a factorial experiment base on completely randomized design (CRD) with 80 treatments and three replications. Treatments included four cultivars (Rish-Baba, Siyah-e-Shiraz, Askari and Bavanati), four sampling dates (6th Dec, 5th Jan, 4th Feb and 6th Mar 2009 and 2010) and low temperature levels (+5, -7, -15, -22 and -30°C). Results indicated that with the decrease of temperature, incidence of bud necrosis increased. Dormant buds of Siyah-e-Shiraz and Askari were most injured by low temperature, whereas, the rate of injury was lower in cvs Rish-Baba and Bavanati cultivars. The lowest and highest LT50 were observed on 6th December in Siyah-e-Shiraz (-14.4°C) and Bavanati (-16.2°C) and Rish-Baba on 6th March in Siyah-e-Shiraz (-10.1°C) and Rish-Baba (-12.8°C), respectively. In general, Rish-Baba and Bavanati were the most tolerant and Siyah-e-Shiraz and Askari were the most susceptible grape cultivars.


Main Subjects

  1. Andrews, P.K. & Proebsting, E.L. (1987). Effects of temperature on the deep supercooling characteristics of dormant and deacclimating sweet cherry flower buds. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 112(2), 334-340.
  2. Aslani, A.A., Vahdati, K., Rahemi, M., Hassani, D. & Leslie, C. (2010). Supercooling and cold-hardiness of acclimated and deacclimated buds and stems of Persian walnut cultivars and selections. HortScience, 45(11), 1162-1167.
  3. Buxo, R. (2008). The agricultural consequences of colonial contacts on the Iberian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17, 145-154.
  4. Callan, N.W. (1990). Dormancy effects on supercooling in deacclimated ‘Meteor’ trat cherry flower buds. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 115(6), 982-986.
  5. Cappiello, P.E. & Dunham, S.W. (1994). Seasonal variation in low temperature tolerance of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. HortScience, 29(4), 302-304.
  6. Creasy, G.L. & Creasy, L.L. (2009). Grapes. CABI, Cabbridge, USA. 295p.
  7. Dwivedi, P. & Dwivedi, R.S. (2005). Physiology of abiotic stress in plants. Agrobios Jodhpur (India). ISBN 10: 8177542478 . 354p.
  8. George, M.F., Becwar, M.R. & Burke, M.J. (1982). Freezing avoidance by deep under cooling of tissue water-hardy plants. Cryobiology, 19, 628-639.
  9. Howell, G.S. & Weiser, C.J. (1970). Fluctuations in the cold resistance of apple twing during spring dehardening. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 92(2), 190-192. 
  10. Howell, G.S. (2000). Grapevine cold hardiness: mechanism of cold acclimation, mid-winter hardiness maintenance and spring deacclimation. Proceeding of the ASEV 50th Anniversary Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 35-48.
  11. Kader, S.A. & Proebesting, E. (1992). Freezing behavior of Prunus, subgenus padus, flower buds. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 117(6), 95-960.
  12. Kavoosi, B. (2010). Biological and histological changes during growth and development of bud in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in relation to bud necrosis. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Agriculture. Shiraz University, Iran. (in Farsi)
  13. Lynn, J.M., Ferguson, J.C. & Markus, K. (2006). Cold- hardiness evaluation of grapevine buds and cane tissues. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 57,194 -200.
  14. Mullins, M.G., Bouqute, A. & Williams, L.E. (1992). Biology of the Grapevine. New York, USA. Cambridge University Press. 239.
  15. Odneal, M.B. (1984). Cold hardiness of grapes. A Guide for Missouri Growers. State Fruit Experiment Station of MSU, Mountain Grove, Missouri 65711-9252. Bulletin No. 41.
  16. Pakkish, Z. (2010). Evaluating cold tolerance, physical and biochemical changes during dormancy and determination of heat requirement in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Agriculture. Shiraz University, Iran. 273p.
  17. Proebsting, E.L. & Mills, H.H. (1978). A synoptic analysis of peach and cherry flower bud hardiness. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 103(6), 842-845.
  18. Quamme, H., Weiser, C.J. & Stushnoff, C. (1973). The mechanism of freezing injury in xylem of winter apple twings. Plant Physiology, 57, 237-277.
  19. Quamm, H.A. (1978). Mechanism of supercooling in overwintering peach flower buds. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 103(1), 57-61.
  20. Rekika, D., Cousineau, J., Levasseur, A., Richer, C., Fisher, H. & Khanizadeh, S. (2005). The use of a bud freezing technique to determine the hardiness of 20 grape genotypes. Small Fruits Review, 4(l), 3-9.
  21. Saltveit, M.E. (2002). The rate of ion leakage from chilling-sensitive tissue does not immediately increase upon exposure to chilling temperatures. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 26, 295-304.
  22. Tafazoli, E. & Beyl, C. (1993). Changes in endogenous abscisic acid and cold hardiness in Actinidia treated with Triazole growth retardants. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 12, 79-83.
  23. Tripathi, R.D., Kulshrreshta, K., Ahmad, P.E., Agrawal, M., Krupa, S., Varshney, C.K. & Pushpagadam, P. (2006). Plant response to environmental strees. International Book Distrbuting Co. 320.
  24. Uemuri, M., Tominago, Y., Nakagawara, C., Shigematsu, S., Minami, A. & Kawamura, Y. (2006). Responses of the plasma to low temperatures. Plant Physiology, 126, 81-89.
  25. Weiser, C.J. (1970). Cold resistance and acclimation in woody plants. HortScience, 5,403-408.
  26. Welling, A. (2003). Overwintering in woody plants, involvement of ABA and dehydrins. University of Helsinki, Finland. pp. 1-59.
  27. Westwood, M.N. (1993). Temperate zone pomology. Freeman and Co Timer Press. Organ. 482.
  28. Wikipedia. (2014). Pasargad. 
  29. Winkler, A.J. (1962). General viticulture. University of California Press. Berkeleh. 633.
  30. Wolf, T.K. & Warren, M.K. (1995). Shoot growth rate and shoot density affect bud necrosis of 'Riesling' grapevines. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science, 120, 989-996.
  31. Wolf, T.K. & Cook, M.K. (1992). Seasonal deacclimation patterns of three grape cultivars at constant, warm temperature. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 43,171-179.
  32. Valamoti, S.M., Mangafa, M., Koukouli-Chrysanthaki, C. & Malamidou, D. (2007). Grape-pressings from northern Greece: the earliest wine in the Aegean? Antiquity, 81, 54-61.