Phytochemical variation of the essential oils of different populations of Achillea nobilis L.

Document Type : Full Paper



The Achillea genus has 19 herbaceous aromatic species in Iran, six of them are endemic. One of the native species of this genus is Achillea nobilis. In traditional medicine, different parts of Achillea species are used because of antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine and antioxidant properties. In this research, the seeds of Achillea nobilis were collected from different provinces of Iran and cultivated in the field of Alborz Research Station, Karaj, Iran.  In order to compare the essential oil content and composition, flowering shoots were collected in full flowering stage. The plant materials were dried at shade and their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results showed that the oil yields varied from 0.33% to 1.44%. Semnan sample was produced the minimum amount of oil yield whereas Kordistan population had maximum oil yild. Cluster analysis divided all accessions into two clusters. The main compound in the oils of first cluster was artmisia ktone. The highest amount of Artemisia ketone (85.5%) was found in the oil of Sanandaj population. In the oil of Ghorghan-2, 84.5%, Maraveh Taph 81.6%, Zanjan-1 81.3%, Golestan-2, 80.2% and Golestan-3, 80.1% of Artemisia ketone were identified. In the oils of cluster 2, the percentage of Artemisia ketone was very low. The accessions contained alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and 1, 8-cineole in their oils. Hamedan-2 population was a rich sourc of cis-chrysanthenol, Gorgan-1 and Khoramabad populations were the rich sources of alpha-thujone and Gorgan-1 contained highest amount of beta-thujone.


Main Subjects

  1. Azadbakht, M. (1999).Classification of Medicinal Plants, Teimurzadeh Publication, 270 pages, Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  2. Azizi, M., Chizzola, R., Ghani, A. & Oroojalian, F. (2010). Composition at different development stages of the essentialoil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.Natural Product Communications, 5, 283-290.
  3. Carnat, A.P., Madesclaireb, M., Chavignonb, O. & Lamaisona, J.L. (1992). cis-Chrysanthenol, a main component in essential oil of Artemisia absinthium L. growing in Auvergne (Massif Central), France. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 4(5), 487-490.
  4. Cernaj, P., Liptakova H., Mohr, G., Repeak, M. & Honcariv, R. (1983). Variability of the content and composition of essential oil during ontogensis of Achillea collina Becker. Herbs of Hungary, 22, 21-27.
  5. Chen, J., Cantrell, C.L., Duke, S.O. & Allen, S.O. (2008). Repellency of callicarpenal and intermedeol against workers of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(2), 265-271.
  6. Demirci, F., Demirci, B., Gorboz, L., Yesilada, E. & Baser, K.H.C. (2009). Characterizathon and biological activity of Achillea teritifolia willd And A. nobilis L. subsp Neilreichi (kerner) formanek essential oils. TurkishJournal of Biology, 33, 129-136.
  7. Ghani, A., Azizi, M., Hassanzadeh Khayat, M. & Pahlavanpourfard Jahromi, A.A. (2008). Analysing Essential Oils of Two Wild Populations of Achillea wilhelmsii Koch., Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 12(45), 581-589 (b).
  8. Ghahrman, A. (1996).  Flora of Iran, Volume 15, Publications of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Tehran, Iran.  125p.
  9. Jeong, S.H., Koo, S.J., Choi, J.H., Park, J.H., Ha, J., Park, H.J. & Lee, K.T. (2002). Intermedeol isolated from the leaves of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis induces the differentiation of human acute promyeocytic leukemia HL-60 Cells. Planta Medica, 68(10), 881-885.
  10. Kazemizadeh, Z., Moradi, A. & Yousefi, M. (2011). Volatile Constituents from Leaf and Flower of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. neireichii from North of Iran, Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10(2) (In Farsi)
  11. Kim, K.J., Kim, Y.H., Yu, H.H., Jeong, S.I., Cha, J.D., Kil, B.S. & You, Y.O. (2003), Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Chrysanthemum boreale. Planta Medica, 69(3), 274-277.
  12. Klein, DR. (2011). Organic Chemistry. John wiley & Sons press. 1360 P.
  13. Lutgen, P. (2013). Artemisia ketone, phytosterols and lipid metabolism. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 58, 37-49.
  14. Mozaffarian, V. (2002). A Dictionary of Iranian plant names, Farhang Moaser Publication, Tehran, Iran. Third Edition, 671 pages. (in Farsi)
  15. Mozaffarian, V. (2008).  Flora of Iran, Asteraceae Family, Publication of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Tehran, Iran. 443 pages. (in Farsi)
  16. Omidbaigi, R. (1995). Approach to the production and processing of medicinal plants, Volume 1, Fekr-e-Rooz Publication, Tehran, Iran. 283 pages. (in Farsi)
  17. Omidbaigi R. (1997). Approach to the production and processing of medicinal plants, Volume 2, Tarahan-e-Nashr Publication, 313 pages. Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  18. Omidbaigi, R. (2005). Production and processing of medicinal plants, Volume 2, Astan Quds Razavi Publication, 438 pages. Mashad, Iran. (in Farsi)
  19. Rustaiyan, A., Masoudi, S., Ezatpour, L., Taherkhani, M. & Aghajani, Z. (2011).  Composition of the essential oils of Anthemis hyalina DC., Achillea nobilis L. and Cichorium intybus L. three Asteraceae herbs growing wild in Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 14(4), 472-480.
  20. Santos, F.A. & Rao, V.S.N. (2000). Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1.8 cineole a terpenoid Oxid present in many plant essential oils. Phytotherapy Research, 14(4), 240-244.
  21. Sedaghat, S. (2007). Chemistry of Essential Oils, Methods for Separation and Identification Essential Oils Composition, 197 pages. Tehran, Iran. (in Farsi)
  22. Shariati, M., Tahmasb, A. & Modarres Hashemi, S.M. (2010). Investigate the effect of different treatments on seed dormancy breaking of Achillea (Achillea millefolium).Journal of Research and Development, 56, 57, 2-8.
  23. Upton, R., Graff, A., Jolliffe, G., Länger, R. & Williamson, E. (2011). American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy- Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines. CRC Press, 800p.
  24. WHO. (2009). Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Volume 4). World Health Organization Press. Geneva Switzerland, 447p.
  25. Yashphe, J., Feuerstein, I., Barel, S. & Segal, R. (1987). The antibacterial and antispasmodic activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso. II. Examination of essential oils from various chemotypes. Pharmaceutical Biology, 25(2), 89-96.
  26. Zargari, A. (1992), Medicinal Plants, Volume 3, Tehran University Press, 925 pages. (in Farsi)