Evaluatation of influencing Ca concentration in nutrient solution and growth medium on the quantitative and qualitative yield of Lilium (Asiatic hybrid lilium)

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


To investigate effect of calcium and growth medium on Lilium (Asiatic Hybrid Lilium bulbs “Tresor” cultivar) and nutrients uptake, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted by three levels of calcium in nutrient solution (2, 4 and 6 mM*) and five growth media (100% Perlite, 70% Perlite + 30% Cocopeat, 50% Perlite + 50% Cocopeat, 30% Perlite + 70% Cocopeat, 100% Cocopeat) with three replicates. The attributes measureing in this experiment were height of the plant, stem diameter, length of flower stalk, number of buds, flower diagonal diameter, time taken to blossom, weight of the dried plant and postharvest vase life. Results showed that the height, stem and flower diameter, flowering stem height and bud number increased in combined bed of coccopeat and peat proportional to increment of coccopeat proportion. At the same concentration of calcium, the mixture of 70% coccopeat and 30% perlite increased flower longevity, but in net coccopeat and perlite, increasing of calcium led to increase in flower longevity.


  1. Bahr, L. & Comrton, M.E. (2004). Competence for invitro bulblet regeneration among eight Lilium genotype. HortScience, 39(1), 127-129.
  2. Bhattacharjee S.K. & Palalanikumar, S. (2002). Postharvest life of roses as affected by holding Solution. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 5(2), 37-38.
  3. Buchanan, B. B., Gruissem, W. & Jones, R. L. (2002). American Society of Plant Physiologists: Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants, Wiley & Sons Press, ISBN: 9780943088396.
  4. Capdeville, G.D., Maffia, L.A., Finger, F.L. & Batista, U.G. (2004). Pre-Harvest calcium sulfate applications affect vase life and severity of Gray Mold in cut roses. Science Horticulture, 103, 329-338.
  5. Chang, Y.C. (2002). Upper leaf necrosis on lilium cv. Star Gazer, a calcium deficiency disorder. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, New York, USA.
  6. Chang, Y.C., Grace-Martin, K. & Miller, W.B. (2004). Efficacy of exogenous calcium applications for reducing upper leaf necrosis in lilium cv. Star Gazer. Horticulture Science, 39, 272-275.
  7. Change, Y.C., Alban, J.P. & Miller, W.B. (2008). Oriental hybrid lily vary in susceptibility to upper leaf necrosis. Acta Horticulturae, 766, 433-439.
  8. Chi, J.M., Lee, K.H. & Lee, E.M. (2005). Effect of calcium concentrations in fertilizer solution on growth of and nutrient uptake by Oriental hybrid lily ‘Casa Blanca’. Acta Horticalturae, 673, 755-760.
  9. FAO. (2009). FAO Statistical Database, (www.fao.org).
  10. Fascella, G. & Zizzo, G.V. (2005). Effect of growing media on yield and quality of soilless cultivated rose. Acta Horticulturae, 697, 133-138.
  11. Gabriels, R., Kerrsbulkand, W.V. & Engels, P. (1993). A rapid method for the determination of physical properties of growing media. Acta Horticulturae, 342, 243-247.
  12. Gerasopoulos, D. & Chebli, B. (1999). Effects of pre and postharvest calcium applications on the vase life of cut gerberas. Journal of Horticulture Science & Biology, 74, 78-81.
  13. Goos, R.G. (1995). A laboratory exercise to demonstrate nitrogen mineralization and immobilization. Journal of Natural Resources & Life Sciences Education, 24(1), 68-70.
  14. Grassoti, A., Nesi, B., Maletta, M. & Magnani, G. (2005). Effect of growing media and planting time on lily hybrids in soilless culture. Acta Horticulturae, 609, 395-399.
  15. Griffin, W.N. (2010). Evaluation of Whole Tree as an Alternative substrate Component in production of Greenhouse - Grown Annuals. M.Sc. Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.
  16. Hogland, D.R. & Arnon, D.I. (1950). The water culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Publications. 347.
  17. Honfi, P., Gaspar, T. & Szabo-Erdelyi, E. (2010). Application of coir in cut lily production. Journal Kertgazdasag Horticulture, 42, 93-100.
  18. Ketsa, S. & Narkuba, N. (2001). Effect of aminoxyacetic acid and sucrose on vase life of cut roses. Acta Horticulturae, 543, 227-234.
  19. Khayyat , M., Nazari , F. & Salehi , H. (2007). Effects of different pot mixtures on pothos growth and development. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science, 2(4), 341-348.
  20. Luiz, A.M., Fernando, L.F. & Ulisses, G.B. (2005). Pre harvest calcium sulfate application affect vase life and severity of gray mold in cut roses. Science Horticulture, 103, 329-338.
  21. Nikrazm, R., Alizadeh Ajirlou, S., Khaligy, A. & Tabatabaei, S. (2011). Effects of different media on vegetative growth of two Lilium cultivars in soilless culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 2(6), 1-9.
  22. Noguera, P., Abad, M., Noguera, V., Puchades, R. & Maquieira, A. (2000). Coconut coir waste, a new and viable ecologically friendly peat substitute. Acta Horticulturae, 517, 279-286.
  23. Oki, L.R. & Lieth, J.H. (2004). Effect of changes in substrate salinity on the elongation of Rosa hybrida L. ‘Kardinal’ stems. Science Horticulture, 101, 103-119.
  24. Olympios, C.M. (1995). Overview of soilless culture advantage, constraints and perspective for its use in Mediterranean countries. Cahier Option, 31, 307-324.
  25. Paye, A.L., Miller, R.H. & Keeny, D.R. (1984). Methods of soil analysis, Part II, Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  26. Rani, N., Kumar, R. & Dhatt, K.K. (2005). Effect of nitrogen levels and growing media on growth , flowering and bulb production of lilium cultivars. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 8(1), 36-40.
  27. Rezaei, A., Mobli, M., Etamdi, N., Khoshgoftarmanesh, H. & Bani Nasab, B. (2009). Effect of different growth media on cut roses. First National Congress of hydroponics and greenhouse production, 20-22 October 2009, 298-299. (In Farsi)
  28. Richard, M.P. (2004). Effect of nursery media particle size distribution on container- grown woody ornamental production. M.Sc. Thesis in horticulture Science, Faculty of the Louisiana state university.
  29. Robichaux, M. (2008). The effect of calcium or silicon on potted miniature roses or poinsettias. A thesis for degree of M.Sc. in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Louisiana State University.
  30. Samiei, L., Khalighi, A., Kafi, M., Samavat, S. & Arghavani, M. (2005). An investigation of substitution of peat moss with palm tree celluloid wastes in growing Aglaonema (Aglaonema commutatum Cv. Silver Queen). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 36(2), 503-509. (In Farsi)
  31. Shi, Z. Q., Jobin-Lawler, F., Gosselin, A., Turcotte, G., Papadopoulos, A. P. & Dorais. M. (2002). Effect of different EC management on yield, quality and nutraceutical properties of tomato grown under supplemental lighting. Acta Horticulturae, 580, 241-247.
  32. Shillo, R., Ding, M. Pasternak, D. & Zacca, M. (2002). Cultivation of cut flower and bulb species with saline water. Science Horticulture, 92, 41-54.
  33. Shiravand, D. &Rostami, F. (2008). Apartment and cut flowers. Sarv Press, Tehran, 259 p. (In Farsi)
  34. Singh, R. & Pradhan, K. (1981). Determination of nitrogen and protein by Kjeldahl method. In: Forage Evaluation Science. Pvt. Publishers Ltd., New Delhi, p. 23.
  35. Sonneveld, C. & Voogt, W. (2009). Plant nutrition of greenhouse crops. 1st Ed., Springer.
  36. Sosanan, S. (2007). Effect of Pre-and postharvest calcium supplementation on longevity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv. Superior sunset). Degree of M.Sc. in the department of Horticulture Louisiana University and Agricultural and mechanical college.
  37. Torre, S., Borochov A. & Halevy, A.H. (1999). Calcium regulation of senescence in roses. Physiology of Plant, 107, 214-219.
  38. Treder, J. (2008). The effect of cocopeat and fertilization on growth and flowering of Oriental lily cv. Star Gazer. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 16, 361-370.
  39. Verdonck, O. & Gabriels, R. (1992). I.Reference method for the determination of physical properties of plant substrates. II.Reference method for the determination of chemical properties of plant substrates. Acta Horticulturae, 302, 169-179.
  40. Yau, P.Y. & Murphy, J. (2000). Biodegraded cocopeat as a horticultural substrate. Acta Horticulturae, 517, 275-278.