Study on the effect of chemical, organic and bio- phosphorus fertilizer on yield and essence of basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Assistant Professor, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

2 Former Graduate Students, College of Agriculture, Islamic Republic Azad University, Jiroft Branch


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizers on the yield and essential oils of basil. This experiment was carried out in completely randomized block design with three replications in Jiroft area. The treatments included three levels of Barvar 2 (10, 20 and 25 g/ha), cow manure at three levels (5, 10 and 15 ton/ha), ammonium phosphate and superphosphate triple each at three levels (50, 100 and 150 kg/ha). Traits such as yield, plant height, seed number, panicle weight per plant, essential oil amount, leaf area, and leaf number were measured. The results showed that the treatments significantly affected yield, plant height, seed number, panicle weight per plant, essential oil amount, and leaf area at 1% level of significance but did not significantly affect the number of clusters and the leaf number. Cow manure treatment had the highest yield, plant height, essential oil, weight per plant, number of leaves and leaf area. Barvar 2 treatments had the highest effect only on the number of fertile seeds. Fertilizer treatments of superphosphate triple had the greatest impact on the number of leaf clusters. Overall, cow manures compared to other treatments had the highest impact.



    1. Alijani, M., Amini Dehaghi, M., Malboobi, M. A., Zahedi, M. & Modares Sanavi, S. A. M. (2011). The effect of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer together with phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar 2) on yield, essential oil amount and chamazulene percentage of Matricaria recutita L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27(3), 450-459.
    2. Amini, A. (1995). Traditional medicinal plants of Iran. Tehran University of Medical Sciences Press
    3. Asea, P. E. A., Kuecy, R. M. N. & Stewart J. W. B. (1988). Inorganic phosphate solubilization by two penicillium species in solution culture and soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20(4), 459-464.
    4. Azzaz, N. A., Hassan, E. A. & Hamad, E. H. (2009). The chemical constituent and vegetative and yielding characteristics of Fennel plants treated with organic and biofertilizer instead of mineral fertilizer. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 579-587.
    5. Bachman, G. R. & Metzeger, J. D. (1998). The use of vermin compost as a media amendment. Pedo Biologia, 32, 419-423.
    6. Bybordi, A. & Malakoti, M. J. 2007. Evaluation of different sources of organic fertilizer on quantity and quality characteristics of red onion. Soil and Water science Journal, 21(1), 33-43. (In Farsi)
    7. Darzi, M. T., Ghalavand, A. & Rejali, F. 2008. Effect of mycorhiza, vermin compost and phosphate biofertilizer application on flowering, biological yield and root colonization in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10 (1), 88-109. (In Farsi)
    8. Fatma, A. G., Lobna, A. M. & Osman, N. M. (2008). Effect of compost and biofertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10(4), 381-387.
    9. Fallahi, J., Kocheki, A. & Rezvani Moghadam, P. (2009). Effect of biofertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Matricaria chamomilla L. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research, 7(1), 127-135. (In Farsi)
    10. Gorgi Anari, M., Rafahi, H. Gh. and Alikhani, H. A. (2007). Effect of manure and biofertilizer in production of Lentil. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 38(2), 305-311. (In Farsi)
    11. Hazarika, D. K., Taluk Dar, N. C., Phookan, A. K., Saikia, U. N., Das, B. C. & Deka, P. C. (2000). Influence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on nursery establishment and growth of tea seedlings in Assam. Symposium No 12, Assam Agriculture University, Jorhat Assam, India.
    12. Khoram Del, S., Kochaki, A., Nasiri Mahalati, M. & Ghorbani, R. (2008). Effect of biological fertilizers on growth indices of Fennel flower. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 6(2), 285-294. (In Farsi)
    13. Kocheki, A., Tabrizi, L. & Ghorbani, R. (2008). Evaluting effect of biofertilizers on growth, yield and qualitiy characteristics of Hyssop. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 6(1), 127-137. (In Farsi)
    14. Kucey, R. M. N. (1983). Phosphate- Solubilizing bacteria and fungi in various cultivated and virgin Alberta soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 63, 671-67.
    15. Mahfouz, S. A. & Sharaf-Eldin, M. A. (2007). Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics Journal, 21, 361-366.
    16. Malbobi, M. A. 2007. Properties of phosphate biofertilizer of Barvar 2. Jihad University Press, 104 pp.
    17. Moradi, R. (2009). Evaluation of biologic and organic fertilizers effects on grain yield, yield components and essence of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). MSc dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    18. Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Raoofi, M.R., Rashed Mohassel, M.H. & Moradi, R. (2009). Evaluation of sowing patterns and weed control on mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) - black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) intercropping system. Journal of Agroecology, 1(1), 65- 79. (In Farsi)
    19. Rosa, M.C., Muchovej, J.J. & Alvarez, V.H. (1989). Temporal relations of phosphorus fractions in an oxisol amended with rock phosphorus and Thiobacillus thiooxidants. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53, 1096-1100.
    20. Sujatha, S., Bhat, R., Kannan, C. & Balasimha, D. (2011). Impact of intercropping of medicinal and aromatic plants with organic farming approach on resource use efficiency in areanut (Areca catechu L.) plantation in India. Industrial Crops and Products, 33, 78-83.
    21. Swaefy Hend, M. F., Weaam, R. A., Sabh, A. Z. & Ragab, A. A. (2007). Effect of some chemical and biofertilizers on pepper mint plants grown in sandy soil. Agricultural Sciences, 52(2), 451-463.
    22. Tahami–Zarandi, S. M. K. (2010). Assessment of organic, biologic and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and essence of basil.MSc. dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashahad, Iran.
    23. Tahami-Zarandi, S. M. K., Rezavani Moghadam, P. & Jahan, M. (2010). Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential percentage of basil (Osimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agroecology, 2(1), 63-74. (In Farsi)
    24. Taleghani, D., Sadegh Zadeh Hemaiati, S., Noshad, H., Tohidlo, Gh., Dehghan Shoar, M. & Hamdi, F. (2006). Effect of different amount of manure on quantitative and qualitative characteristicsof sugar beet in rotation with wheat. Journal of Sugar Beet, 22(2), 67-78. (In Farsi)
    25. Vazan, S., Malboobi, M. A., Madani, H. & Anoshe, A. (2005). Effect of mineral and bio-fertilizer on yield of two sorghum cultivars under salt stress. 9the Iranian Soil Science Congress. Karj, Iran.
    26. Zarin Kafsh, M. (1992). Soil Fertility and Fertilizer production. Teheran University Press. 319 Pp.