Effect of training system and pruning severity on the yield and fruit quality characteristics of kiwifruit

Document Type : Full Paper


1 Former M. Sc. Student and Assistant Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University of Bushehr

2 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture, University of Guilan


Continual bearing and production of the highest quality fruits in kiwi requires initial training and regular annual pruning. Effects of three training systems including T-bar, as a common training system, Modified TY (MTY) and Y-shape (Y), and two pruning levels (60 and 80 buds per vine) was studied on yield and quality characteristics of kiwifruit ‘Hayward’. Experiment was carried out in a factorial experiment using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in 2012. Results showed that the highest yield was obtained in Y80 treatment and the highest content of fruit tissue firmness, TSS and TSS/TA ratio were observed in Y60 treatment. The lowest fruit dry matter percentage belonged to MTY60, but fruits vitamin C was observed in Y60, Y80 and MTY60 systems. The highest content of total phenol was obtained in Y60 and MTY60 systems. However, the highest content of fruits extract total chlorophyll and antioxidant capacity at harvest time was observed in Y60. According to the results of this study, Y training system and pruning level of 60 buds per vine increased yield and quality of kiwifruit, respectively.



    1. Asbahi Sis, S., Ebadi, A., Zamani, Z. A., Vezvaii, A., Naghavi, M. R. & Talaii, A. (2004). The effect of three types of training systems on yield and quality of five cultivars of grapes. Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 5(4), 189-200.
    2. Antognozzi, E., Boco, M., Famiani, F., Palliotti, A. & Tombesi, A. (1995). Effect of different light intensity on quality and storage life of kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae, 379, 483-490.
    3. Asghari, A. D., Piri, S. & Rabiei, V. (2009). Effects of different training systems on the quantity and quality of grape varieties grapes raisin. In: Proceedings of 6th Iranian Horticultural Sciences Congress, 13-16 Jul., University of Guilan, Rasht, pp. 2009-2012.
    4. Ashournezhad, M. (2010).A Comparison of organic, integrated and conventional growing practices on compositions and postharvest performance of kiwifruit cv. ‘Hayward’. MSc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht.
    5. Azami Mavalo, M. A. & Nazemieh, A. (2005). Effect of different vine canopy spreading directions at mounded and trailer planting systems on quantity and quality of grape cv. Sultanin. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 6(3), 149-158.
      1. .Bennewitz, E. V., Fredes, C., Losak, T., Martínez, C. & Hlusek, J. (2011). Effects on fruit production   and quality of different dormant pruning intensities in ‘Bing’/‘Gisela®6’ sweet cherries (Prunus         avium) in Central Chile Cien. Inv. Agr., 38(3), 339-344.
      2. Beutel, J. A. (1990). Kiwifruit production in California. University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
      3. Beveer, D. J. & Hapkirk, G. (1990). Fruit development and fruit physiology. In: Warrington, I. J. & Weston, G. C. (eds.), Kiwifruit Science and Management. Ray Richards Publisher, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 97-126.
      4. Buler, Z. & Mika, A. (2004). Evaluation of the ‘Mikado’ tree training system versus the spindle form in apple trees. Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 12, 49-60.
      5. Burdon, J., McLeod, D., Lallu, N., Gamble, G., Petley, M. & Gunson, A. (2004). Consumer evaluation of Hayward kiwifruit of different at-harvest dry matter contents. Journal of Postharvest Biology and Technology, 34, 245-255.
      6. Buxton, K. (2005). Preharvest practices affecting postharvest quality of Hayward kiwifruit. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
      7. Capitani, D., Mannina, L., Proietti, N., Sobolev, A. P., Tomassini, A., Miccheli, A., Di Cocco, M. E., Capuani, G., De Salvador, R., Delfini, M. (2010). Monitoring of metabolic profiling and water status of Hayward kiwifruits by nuclear magnetic resonance. Talanta, 82, 1826-38.
      8. Chantalak, T.B.S. (2004). Influence of time of overhead shading on yield, fruit quality, and subsequent flowering of hardy kiwifruit, Actinidia arguta. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 32, 235-241.
      9. Du, G., Li, M., Ma, F. & Liang, D. (2009). Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in Actinidia fruits. Food Chemistry, 113, 557-562.
      10. Fattahi Moghadam, J., Khazaii Poul, Y. Gh. & Taheri, H. (2007). Use to TSS for Determination Of harvest Appropriate time of kiwifruit ‘Hayward’.In:Proceedings of 4th Iranian Horticultural Sciences Congress, Shiraz University, Shiraz, pp. 624.
      11. Fawzi, M. I. F., Shahin, M. F. M. & Candil, E. A. (2010). Effect of bud load on bud behavior, yield, cluster characteristics and some biochemical contents of the cane of crimson seedless grapevines. American Science, 6 (2), 187-194.
      12. Feng, J. (2003). Segregation of Hayward kiwifruit for storage potential. Ph.D. Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, Abst.
      13. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2012). Biodiversity: Agricultural biodiversity in FAO. http://www.fao.org/biodiversity.
      14. Hertog, M. L. & Nicholson, S. E. (2001). The effect of MA on the rates of gas exchange and quality deterioration. In: Preceedings of the Australasian Postharvest Conference, September 23-27, Adelaide, Australia.
      15. Hunter, D. C., Skinner, M. A., Ferguson, A. R. & Stevenson, L. M. (2010). Kiwifruit and Health. Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables. (In Press).
      16. Karami, M. J. (2009). Effect of Pruning Severity and Bud Number per Bearing Unit on Yield and Yield Components of Rainfed Grape cv. Shirazi. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 26(1), 57-67.
      17. Kim, H. O. (1999). The role of ethylene in kiwifruit softening. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
      18. Mahmoudzadeh, H., Rasouli, V.A. & Ghorbanian, D. (2010). Effect of some training systems on vegetative growth, fruit yield and fruit quality of vitis vinifera cv. Sefid bidaneh in Takestan. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 25 (4), 373-387.
      19. Marsh, K., Attanayake, S., Walker, S., Gunson, A., Boldingh, H. & MacRae, E. (2004). Acidity and taste in kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 32, 159-168.
      20. Miller, S. A., Broom, F. D., Throp, T. G. & Barrnet, A. M. (2001). Effect of leader pruning on the vine architecture, productivity, quality of kiwifruit (Actinida deliciosa cv. Hayward). Scientia Horticulturae, 91, 189-199.
      21. Montefiori, M., Mcghie, T. K., Hallett, I. C. & Costa, G. (2009). Changes in pigments and plastid ultrastructure during ripening of green-flashed and yellow-flashed kiwifruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 119, 377-387.
      22. Moretti, C. L., Mattos, L. M., Calbo, A. G. & Sargent, S. A. (2010). Climate changes and potential impacts on postharvest quality of fruit and vegetable crops: A review. Food Research International, 43, 1824-1832.
      23. Nishiyama, I., Fukuda, T. & Oota, T. (2007). Cultivar different in chlorophyll, lutein and carotene content in the fruit of kiwifruit and other Actinidia species. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, 753, VI International Symposium on Kiwifruit, Abst.
      24. Salehi, L., Eshghi, S., Tafazoli, A. A., Karami, M. J. & Rostamikhah, M. (2011). Effect of training systems on the anthocyanin content and other features grape‘Yaghoti’. In: Proceedings of 7th Iranian Horticultural Sciences Congress, 5-8 Sep., Isfahan University, Isfahan, pp. 1899-1900.
      25. Salinero, C., Pinon, P., Lema, M. J. & Martinez, L. (2008). Effect of fertilization and training on the sensory properties of kiwifruit in orchards in northern Portugal, pp. 9.
      26. Sharma, R. S., Dhankhar, K. D., Kaushik, O. P. & Saini, R.A. (2006). Laboratory manual of analytical techniques in horticulture. Tehran University Press, 135 p.
      27. Silva, B. M., Andrade, P. B., Valentao, P., Ferreres, F., Seabra, R. M. & Ferreira, M. A. (2004). Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller.) fruit (pulp, peel and seed) and jam: antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 4705-4712.
      28. Tavarini, S., Degl'Innocenti, E., Remorini, D., Massai, R. & Guid, L. (2008). Antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and after storage of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Food Chemistry, 107, 282-288.
      29. Tombesi, A., Antognozzi, E. & Palliotti, A. (1993). Influence of light exposure on characteristics and storage life of kiwifruit. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticulture Science, 21, 87-92.
      30. Warrington, I. & Weston, G. (1990). Kiwifruit: Science and Management. Ray Richard Publisher, 576 p.
      31. Woodward, T. J. (2006). Variation in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit quality characteristics. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Waikato, New Zealand.

    34.    Taylor, B. K. & Leamon, K. C. (1991). Trellis effects on yield and fruit quality of five table grape varieties in the Murray valley. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 31, 85-89.