Effect of Elevation and Different Treatments on Asafetida (Ferula assa-foetida L.) Seed Germination



Bitter asafetida (Ferula asa-fetidae L.) is a wild plant of the family Umbelliferae. The present study was carried out to determine the type of dormancy of the plant’s seed, and find out the most suitable treatment needed for quick germination of seeds. Twelve treatments including GA3 (500, 1000, 1500 ppm), KNO3 (0.1, 0.2 0.3 Molar), rinsing (24, 48, 72 Hour),elimination of seed coat (one year-old seeds, newly harvsted seeds) along with coated newly harvested seeds vs. control (coated one year old seeds) were employed. The above treatments were carried out in the framework of two completely randomized designs at two temperatures of 20 and 5?C and in four replications. The results obtained through an application of ANOVA indicated the newly harvested seeds not germinating under any of the treatment conditions, a proof of their embryo not being fully developed. Within all the treatments, except the one in which the coating was removed, the seeds needed at least 20 days to be kept at 5?C to germinate. Other treatments (different levels of GA3, KNO3 as well as rinsings) significantly affected the final germination (percent), but did not conspicuously increase the speed of germination. Elimination of the coating in one year-old seeds led to their germination of 84% within 4 days even at 20?C, whereas the other seeds did not germinate at this temprature. The results finally indicated an elimination of seed coat as the most suitable treatment for asafetida seed germination. Increase in the elevation of the seed collection site caused a significant increase in the chilling need of the seed prior to its germination.