An Evaluation of the Effecs of Plastic and Organic Mulches and Different Shading Levels on Yield and Quality of Tomato in Term of Water (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)



Effects of different Mulches and Saran shading on yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Early Urbana VF) were studied at Ilam University, Ilam, Iran in 2009. The research work was carried out using a 4×4 split plot experimental arrangment through a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) of three replications, where shading levels of 0%: no shading; 40%: white; 55%: double-layered white and 60%: green saran clothes constituted the main plot while different types of mulches [Clear Polyethylene (CP); Black Polyethylene (BP); Straw mulch (SW)] vs Bare Soil (BS) acting as control. Results indicated that the use of BP and 60% shade resulted in maximum marketable fruit weight (52.5 t/h (and average fruit weight (103.56 g), while the use of BP leading to maximum total yield (57.8 t/h). The use of BP along with 60% shade led to the number of cracked fruits to be minimized. The least number of BER fruits was recorded for CP along with 60% shade. Applying BP along with 55% shade resulted in minimum Blossom End Rot (BER) fruits (1.75 t/h). Applying BP and 40% shade resulted in a minimum yield of cracked fruits (1.07 t/h). The highest length of fruit recorded for composite treatments of BP along with 55% and 60% shading. Maximum fruit diameter was obtained under BS along with 60% shade. Pericarp thickness reached the highst level under 60% shade. Under 0% shade and BS, fruit acidity reached the maximum level (%43). Total soluable solids (5.96%) reached its maximum )0.43%) under 0% shading. With 60% shade along with CP, a maximum number of main branches was counted. The use of BP resulted in achieving the highest number of marketable as well as total number of fruits. The treatments didn,t affect the early ripening of fruits. Between the maximum and minimum time of harvest, it lasted 17.7days. It is concluded that the use of BP and 60% shade in areas where sunlight is more than 20000 lux, the quality and quantity properties of tomato crop will improve.