A Study ot the Phenotypic Diversity of some Almond Cultivars and Genotypes, using Morphological Traits



For a comparison and grouping of 72 almond cultivars and genotypes, 30 traits including; 12 phenological and vegetative characters plus 18 traits related to nut and kernel were assessed, according to almond universal descriptor. The results revealed that some such traits as growth habit, flower color, nut weight, shell hardness and kernel taste carried high coefficients of variation. Simple correlation coefficients between traits indicated the existance of significant (positive, or negative) correlations among some evaluated important vegetative, nut and kernel traits. Cluster analysis at Euclidean distance of 25, divided the cultivars and genotypes into two main branches and characteristics as nut length, weight, width and color of kernel were effective in the division of cultivars and genotypes. With a decrease in the Euclidean distance from 25 to 10, the cultivars and genotypes were divided into six main subclusters while such traits such as tree growth, shell thickness and hardness, length to width ratio of nut, kernel weight to nut weight ratio as well as kernel taste were important factors in the segregation of main clusters. The factor analysis reduced the assessed traits into 11 main factors justifing 75.07 percent of total variation. Based on the obtained results, cultivars and genotypes of: ‘Dir Ras–e-Savojbolagh’, ‘D-124’, ‘D-99’, ‘Shahrood 12’, ‘Tuono’, ‘Nonpareil’, ‘Price’, ‘Mirpanj-e-Tehran’, ‘Pakotahe-e- Taleghan’ , ‘Nu. 13-34’, ‘Nu. 16-8, ‘Nu. 11-10’, ‘Zarghan 10’, ‘Uromiyeh 68’, ‘Barg dorosht-e-Hamedan’ and ‘Yazd 60’ as regards some of such important traits, as late flowering habit, nut and kernel features, were more prominent than those in the other cultivars and genotypes.