Evaluation of Genetic Variation in Iranian Pistachio Cultivars Using Morphological Characteristics



To study the genetic variations in pistachio cultivars, 42 female pistachio cultivars from Station No.2 of Rafsanjan, 25 cultivars from Pistachio Research Station of Kerman, 40 cultivars from Station No. 1 of Naseriyyeh region, 3 cultivars from Damghan region, as well as 5 ones from Khorasan region were taken for experimentation. To carry out cluster analysis based on morphological traits, the pertaining characteristics were assessed. Following measurement and collection of data, cluster analysis was done through use of SPSS statistical software based on the obtained characteristics, and then the related tree chart was obtained. Results placed Rafsanjan cultivars into 10 groups, Naseriyyeh cultivars into 12 groups, and Kerman cultivars into 6 separated groups. The cluster analysis of all the cultivars within all the regions delineated the classification of the cultivars as regionally, in which, cultivars of various regions got palced in separate groupings, illustrating the effects of environment on morphological characteristics. Similar cultivars in different regions revealed different morphological characteristics, causing cultivars in various regions of close genetic similarities not to be palced in one group based on morphological characteristics. So, in order to study the genetic variation in cultivars prevalent in different regions, in addition of morphological characteristics, molecular markers such as DNA and proteins must also be used. Cultivars of Damghan and Khorasan regions were palced in one group, cultivar Shahpasand of Damghan plus cultivar white Badami (almond-like) of Khorasan, as well as cultivar Abbas-ali of Damghan and cultivar Barg Siyah (Black Leaf) of Khorasan were proved to have very close genetic similarities based on respective Cosine Similarity Coefficients of 0.893 and 0.908.