Genetic Diversity of Some Iranian Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Landraces Using Morphological Traits



An investigation was conducted to determine the genetic diversity among 44 Iranian spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) landraces using 21 morphological characteristics under open field conditions. According to data analysis results, significant differences were found among landraces in vegetative traits at 1 and 5% levels. Results showed that Tabriz landrace had the highest percentage of female plant (89.49%) and the lowest pedicle length (4.35 cm). Kerman landrace bore the highest dry matter (14.6%). The highest fresh weight (84.43 g) and leaf number (18.4 leaves) belonged to Varamin 2 and Varamin 3, respectively. Bojnourd1 contained the highest anthocianin. Seven types of leaf shapes were recognized in the study. On the basis of correlation coefficients, positive and significant correlations were observed among leaf number vs. length and width of leaf blade (r = 0.32, 0.53). Also positive and significant correlations were observed between petiole length and diameter vs. length and width of leaf blade (r = 0.46, 0.56) and (r = 0.77, 0.65, 0.60) at 1% level. Based upon cluster analysis, landraces were classified into four groups each with 14, 4, 19 and 7 landraces. As for the first group landraces were similar for their leaf shape and female plant percent. The similarity of the second group was leaf number and shape, pedicle length, growing period and fresh weight. Almost all bearing landraces seed spine belonged to the third group. They were similar for their plant fresh weight as well as growing period. The forth group were similar in plant dry weight. Results finally indicated that Iranian spinach landraces with their valuable horticultural traits constitute rich genetic resources for further future breeding programs